Heterosexism and Homophobia

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    Heterosexism and Homophobia
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    Definitions: Homophobia, Heterosexism, and Sexual Prejudice. People with homosexual or bisexual orientations have long been stigmatized. With the rise of the heterosexism political movement in the late s, however, homosexuality's condemnation as immoral, criminal, and sick came under increasing scrutiny. When the American Psychiatric Association dropped homosexuality as a psychiatric diagnosis inthe question of why some heterosexuals harbor strongly heterosexism attitudes toward homosexuals began fefine receive serious scientific consideration.

    George Weinberg from and Society's rethinking of sexual orientation was crystallized in the term homophobiawhich heterosexual hheterosexism George Weinberg coined in heterosexjsm late heterlsexism. Weinberg used homophobia to label heterosexuals' dread of being in close quarters with homosexuals as well as homosexuals' self loathing.

    The word first appeared in print in and was subsequently discussed at define in Weinberg's book, Society and the Healthy Homosexual. The American Heritage Dictionary edition defines homophobia as "aversion to gay or homosexual people or defihe lifestyle or culture" and "behavior or an act based on this aversion. Around the same time, heterosexism began to be used heeterosexism a term analogous to sexism and racism, describing an ideological system that denies, denigrates, and stigmatizes any nonheterosexual form of behavior, identity, heterosexism, or community Herek, Using the term heterosexism highlights the parallels between antigay sentiment and other forms of prejudice, such as racism, antisemitism, and sexism.

    Define institutional racism and sexism, heterosexism pervades societal customs and institutions. It operates through a dual process heterosexjsm invisibility and attack. Homosexuality usually remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in hwterosexism behavior or who are identified as homosexual become visible, they are subject to attack by society.

    Define of heterosexism in the United States include the continuing ban against lesbian and gay military personnel; widespread lack of legal protection from heetrosexism discrimination in employment, housing, heteroswxism services; hostility to lesbian define gay committed relationships, recently dramatized by passage of federal and state laws against same-gender marriage; and the existence of sodomy laws in more than one-third of the states.

    Although usage of the two words has not define uniform, homophobia has typically been employed to describe individual antigay attitudes and heterosexism whereas heterosexism has referred to societal-level ideologies and patterns of institutionalized oppression of non-heterosexual people.

    By drawing popular and scientific attention to antigay heterosexism, the creation of define terms marked a defije. Nevertheless, they have important limitations. Critics have observed that homophobia is problematic for at least two reasons. First, empirical research does not indicate that heterosexuals' antigay attitudes can reasonably be considered a phobia in the clinical sense. Second, using homophobia implies heterosexism antigay prejudice is an individual, clinical entity rather than a social phenomenon rooted in definf ideologies and intergroup relations.

    Moreover, a phobia is usually experienced as dysfunctional and unpleasant. Antigay prejudice, however, is often highly functional for the heterosexuals who manifest it. As antigay attitudes have become increasingly central to conservative political and religious ideologies since the s, these limitations have become more problematic.

    However, heterosexismwith its historic macro-level focus on cultural ideologies rather than individual attitudes, is not a satisfactory replacement for homophobia. Sexual Prejudice. Scientific analysis of the psychology of antigay attitudes will be facilitated by a new term. Define prejudice serves this purpose nicely. Broadly conceived, sexual prejudice refers to all negative attitudes based on sexual orientation, whether the target is homosexual, bisexual, or heterosexual.

    Given the current social organization of sexuality, however, such prejudice is almost always directed at people who engage in homosexual behavior or define themselves gay, lesbian, or bisexual Herek, Like other types of dfine, sexual prejudice has three principal features: It is an attitude i.

    It is directed at a social group and its members. It is negative, involving hostility or dislike. First, sexual prejudice is a descriptive term.

    Unlike homophobia, it conveys no a priori assumptions about the origins, dynamics, and underlying motivations of antigay attitudes. Second, the term explicitly dedine the study of antigay hostility with the rich tradition of social psychological research on prejudice. Third, using the construct of sexual prejudice does not require heterosexism judgments that antigay attitudes are inherently irrational or evil. Herek, G. The context of anti-gay violence: Notes on cultural and psychological heterosexism.

    Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5dfeine The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions heterosexism Psychological Science, 9 Fear of male homosexuality: Cardiac responses of low and high homonegative males.

    Are some groups of people more prejudiced than others? Herek, Ph. All rights reserved.

    Heterosexism definition, a prejudiced attitude or discriminatory practices against homosexuals by heterosexuals. See more. Heterosexuality is considered the dominant form of sexuality in our society. In this lesson, we'll talk about heterosexism, which is the idea that. Heterosexism definition is - discrimination or prejudice by heterosexuals against homosexuals.

    heterosexism

    Heterosexism
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    To save this define, you'll need to log in. Send hetrosexism feedback. First Known Use of heterosexismin the meaning defined above Keep scrolling for more Learn More define heterosexism Heterosexism heterosexism Post the Definition of heterosexism to Facebook Share define Definition of heterosexism on Twitter Time Heterosexism for heterosexism. See more words from the same heterosexism Dictionary Entries near heterosexism heteropoly- heterosexism acid heteropterous heterosexism heterosexism heteroside Heterosiphonales.

    Accessed 29 November Comments on heterosexism What made you want to look up heterosexism? Please tell us where you read or define it including the dffine, if possible. Test Your Knowledge - and learn some interesting things along the way.

    Subscribe to Heterosexism largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! It's a question for the adult table. A Guide to Using Semicolons You defiine can become a semicolon master! Vefine there one standard way? Literally Define to use a define that literally derine some people nuts. Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? Test your knowledge of food and food words. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled heterosexism Build a define of words by adding one letter at a time.

    Heterosexism or Register. Save Word. Log In. Definition of define. Keep scrolling for more. Examples define heterosexism heterosexism a Sentence Recent Examples on the Web The elephants in the dwfine, namely, heterosexism and homophobia, and how these cultural systems relate to First Known Use of heterosexismin the meaning defined above.

    Learn Define about heterosexism. Time Traveler for heterosexism The first known use of heterosexism was in See more words from the same year.

    Dictionary Entries define heterosexism heteropoly- heteropoly acid heteropterous heterosexism heterosexual heteroside Heterosiphonales See More Nearby Entries. Statistics for heterosexism Look-up Popularity.

    The Merriam-Webster. Get Heterosexism of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Love words? Need even more definitions?

    When there's 'positively' none of something. The awkward case of 'his or her'. Take the quiz Name that Food Quiz Test your knowledge of food and food words.

    Take the quiz Spell It Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? Take the quiz Add Diction Build a chain of words by define one letter at a heetrosexism. Play the game.

    Or even the two people define come to mind heterosexism you think of a couple? Using the term heterosexism highlights the parallels between antigay sentiment heterosexism other forms of define, such as racism, antisemitism, and sexism. sex dating

    Heterosexism and homophobia are two related forms of oppression that can exist alongside or interact with race and racism. Like racism, sexism, classism, caste prejudice, xenophobia, ageism, and other oppressions, heterosexism and homo-phobia deffine a common root: namely, the exercise of social domination based on a negative evaluation of social difference.

    Heterosexism and homophobia heterosexim racism in sefine key ways: 1 by exacerbating the fefine directed at people who are already subject to racism for example, gay black people ; 2 by strengthening the existing social tendency to create hierarchies based on difference for example, tacitly ranking black heterosexuals above black LGBTQQI people, or privileging white gay men above black gay men ; and 3 by providing additional avenues of discrimination or violence for already vulnerable populations and thus confounding the source of discrimination or violence such as the routine imprisonment or frequent assault of homeless black transsexuals.

    Both heterosexism and homophobia can pertain to prejudice, discrimination, or violence against people on the basis of their gender presentation and its conformity to social norms in addition to prejudice, discrimination, or violence against LGBTQQI people and related systems of power. Heterosezism, heterosexism and homophobia encompass virtually all forms heterosexsim oppression that relate to physical sex, sexuality, sexual behavior, sexual orientation, sexual dffine, affectional preference, sexual identity, gender identity, gender role, and gender expression, particularly when any of these fall outside what society deems normal or traditional.

    As such, heterosexism and homophobia often intersect with sexism in addition to race and racism. Heterosexism and homophobia denote a broad general spectrum of experiences that involve negative, unfair, or discriminatory refine on heterosexism basis of sexual orientation or gender expression. Other terminologies that have been used to encompass this spectrum include homo-negativism, homoprejudice, gay-bashing, gay-baiting, and hate crimes. Although hate crimes have been the subject of much public discussion and policy development in the United Dsfine and globally, researchers agree that there are many forms of negative behavior directed toward LGBTQQI people that fall outside the definition of hate crimes due to their subtler, more informal, or less overtly violent nature.

    Both survey data and anecdotal reports suggest that the majority of LGBTQQI people have been the target of negative behavior directed at them as the result of their sexual orientation or gender expression. In addition, both research-based and personal accounts indicate that experiences of heterosexism and degine have often been compounded by forms of discrimination related to race, gender, class, nationality, culture, religion, ability status, hetersoexism, or deefine vectors of social difference.

    Intersectionality refers to the fact that various identities and oppressions overlap and interact. For instance, the experience of being heterosexism and gay may differ from the experience of being black and gay; the experience of being a lesbian of East Indian descent from a Hindu community may differ from the experience of being a lesbian of East Indian descent from a Muslim community; the experience of being a transgender person living in poverty may differ heterozexism the experience of being a wealthy transgender person.

    Even within groups of people claiming the same identity and sharing the same social location black Christian middle-class lesbians, for instance define, there are differences in experience and perspective based on personality and personal history. Heterosexism and homophobia, like all forms of oppression, may be expressed at the individual, collective, or institutional levels of society.

    Furthermore, heterosexism and homophobia, like other forms of oppression, may be reflected in attitudes and heherosexism, behaviors and practices, cognitions including beliefs and stereotypespolicies and laws, and even material or symbolic culture.

    Social institutions, such as schools, jails, hospitals, or public hteerosexism agencies, may develop heterosexist or homophobic policies that prevent LGBTQQI people define enjoying the same rights or hrterosexism as heterosexual or gender conforming people.

    For example, schools may place on detention or expel same-sex student couples who hold hands or kiss, but not different-sex student couples who do the same thing. Furthermore, schools may tacitly discourage or explicitly disallow students of the same sex from attending a prom together, while similar disincentives or prohibitions are not placed upon students xefine different sexes.

    Jails may prevent condom distribution because of a desire to not condone or even not acknowledge same-sex sexual activity. Hospitals may deny visitation or consultation rights to the same-sex partner or children of a patient. In other cases, patients are rejected from care on the basis of their presumed sexual orientation or non-traditional gender expression, a particularly common problem for transgender people.

    Defkne welfare agencies may fail to recognize same-sex unions or parental relationships, thus denying access to certain benefits or programs that would be available if the clients were heterosexual. For example, non-biological mothers whose same-sex unions dissolve may lose custody of their children or even visitation rights despite strong bonds between them and their children heterosexism years of child-rearing.

    For instance, transgender individuals often have a hard time finding placement geterosexism gender-segregated facilities for the unhoused; queer people who are fired from their jobs on the basis of sexual orientation or who experience other forms of discrimination often cannot afford the legal expenses of a civil suit. Heterosexism and homophobia exist in law as well.

    Heteroeexism instance, laws that bar same-sex partners from marriage or civil union disallow lesbian and gay couples from a number of rights and privileges that different-sex couples can take for granted, hetfrosexism as tax benefits, insurance benefits, property rights, inheritance rights, adoption rights, visitation rights, and immigration rights.

    These laws also disadvantage different-sex partners who choose not to marry, although such couples are not subject to. Heterosexism and homophobia abound at the level of material and symbolic culture, most evident in the mass media and everyday social practices. For example, heterosexual couples are common on television, deflne movies, and in advertisements, whereas homosexual couples are rare. The experiences of heterosexual couples are normalized and presented in great diversity, whereas the experiences of homosexual couples tend to be presented as pathological or comedic departures from the norm.

    For example, heterosexual couples from a variety of racial, ethnic, heterozexism cultural deine, socioeconomic classes rich, poor, middle classand religious communities Christian, Jewish, Islamic are frequently observed, unlike their dedine or gay heterosxeism.

    Notably scarce for define groups, however, are interracial, intercultural, or cross-religious unions and families. Furthermore, individuals whose relational style or preference does not conform to the couple model—for example, people with multiple partners, people in open relationships, polyamorous or polygamous people, or people who are celibate by choice—are rarely represented, or, when they are, are treated as spectacle rather than normalized.

    Even language heterosexism heterosexism and homophobia. In English, there are more words most of them pejorative to describe gay men than straight men and lesbian women than straight women.

    Define, there are few words that suggest the possibility of genders other than or in between male and female, excluding and minimizing the lived experiences of transgender and inter-sex people. While other forms of homophobia and heterosexism certainly contribute to this phenomenon, the absence of an appropriately diversified discourse about gender and sexual heterosexism is likely an important factor.

    Finally, social practices like gender-reassignment surgery in the case of intersex childrengender reassignment therapy in the case of transgender heterosrxism intersex individuals who are diagnosed with gender identity disorderand reorientation therapy also known as reparative therapy, conversion therapy, or RT—designed to change homosexuality into heterosexuality or asexuality further invalidate and render invisible the reality that not all people fit into the sexual, gender, and relational categories on which mainstream society has historically relied.

    Perspectives on homosexuality, homosociality, gender role, and gender expression have hetrrosexism across time and culture. Cultures vary with regard to how they define and label sex and gender, and not all cultures devalue same-sex sexual expression.

    Additionally, virtually all cultures have witnessed historical changes in how they define and label sex and gender as well as the value or stigma they place on same-sex sexual expression.

    While biological sex, gender expression, gender role, sexual or affectional orientation, and gender or sexual identity are all technically independent of one another that is, capable of existing in a virtually infinite number of definrmost societies package these variables in predictable ways cefine attach value to social scripts that contribute to heterosexism and homophobia.

    As Walter Williams has shown, a number of societies, from Native American to Southeast Asian, Pacific Islander, Middle Eastern, and African have defined valued gender statuses of this nature, often linked to special statuses within the larger society In many cases, these statuses have been associated with unique spiritual abilities or responsibilities.

    While seemingly less hetsrosexism, similar roles for female-bodied or intersex persons have also existed. Many societies have heterosexism what are known as third-sex or third-gender statuses, some naming as many as six unique and identifiable sexes or genders based on different combinations of body male, female, or intersexgender role male, female, or transgendersexual orientation or behavior homosexual, heterosexual, or bisexualand other factors spiritual, ritual, or preferential.

    Societies have varied on and scholars continue to debate whether sex, gender, and sexual orientation are natural and fixed the essentialist position or arbitrary and historically constituted the social constructionist position.

    Many societies have maintained religious doctrines or cosmologies creation stories explaining how gender, sex, and sexuality define into being and what are the acceptable variations. At the same time, a great deal of evidence suggests that homosexual behavior and variations in gender expression have always devine across all known societies. How societies have interpreted heterosxism explained homosexuality and gender variation, as well as the value societies have placed on these practices, has varied define time and across subpopulations within societies.

    Each of these perspectives has different implications for how heterosexism and homophobia manifest in society, as well as how each is combated. Rights for homosexual and gender variant define are being linked with the larger human rights heterowexism.

    Activism focuses on gaining recognition, visibility, and rights, as well as parity definf the representational realm, whether political, economic, or symbolic. Since the s, marches for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender rights, also known as pride marches, have become increasingly common around the globe, although LGBTQQI organizing continues to be risky in many countries.

    InSouth Africa achieved international definw by becoming the first nation in the world to incorporate LGBT rights into its national constitution. Hetreosexism the United Statessame-sex marriages or civil unions are recognized to some degree in the states of California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maine, Massachusetts, New Jerseyand Vermont, as well as the District of Columbia, although this acceptance is highly contested at the national level.

    Because LGBTQQI people are whole persons and not just embodiments of sexual orientation or gender expression, anti-heterosexist and anti-homophobic activism targets the elimination of all forms of prejudice, discrimination, and violence in society. Bell, Alan P. New York : Simon and Schuster. Curray, Paisley, Richard M. Juang, and Shannon Price Minter, ed. Transgender Rights. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

    Feinberg, Leslie. Boston: Beacon. Foucault, Michel. The History of Sexualitytrans. Robert Hurley. New York: Pantheon. Graupner, Helmut, and Heterosexism Tahmindjis, eds.

    Greene, Beverly, ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Hemphill, Essex, ed. Boston: Alyson. Herek, Gregory M. Berrill, eds. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Leong, Russell, ed. New York: Routledge. Lorde, Audre. Sister Heterosexism Essays and Speeches. Trumansburg, NY: Crossing Press. Mason-John, Valerie, ed. London: Cassell. Murray, Stephen O.

    Latin American Male Heterosexism. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press. Islamic Heterosexusm Culture, History, and Literature. Patton, Cindy, and Define Sanchez-Eppler, degine. Define Diasporas. Peterson, K. Binghamton, NY: Haworth Press. Phillips, Layli. Potgieter, Cheryl, ed. Special issue of the South African feminist journal on African homosexualities.

    Preves, Sharon E. Intersex and Identity: The Contested Self. Ratti, Rakesh, ed.

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    Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. Log in or Sign up. What do you think of when you think of a wedding? Or of the toppers on the wedding cake? Or even the two people who come to mind when you think of a couple? For many people, what likely comes to mind is two people of the opposite sex. While not everyone thinks of this first, many of heterosexism would and it has to do with heterosexism way our society views sexual and romantic relationships.

    In this lesson, we'll heterosexism about heterosexismwhich is the conviction that everyone in society is straight and that it is the only legitimate form of sexual orientation. First a few definitions. When referring to sexual orientationwe mean our desires and who we are attracted to. In Western society, the dominant assumption define that most people are interested in dating someone of the opposite sex.

    These assumptions make heterosexism a system of stratificationwhich means that people hold unequal positions in our society based on sexual orientation. Heterosexism extends beyond define negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians in our society.

    People can face discrimination when they do not identify as heterosexual. These relationships that are not heterosexual are stigmatized and sometimes considered wrong or immoral. People who do not identify as heterosexual can face discrimination in housing and employment and can face attacks and violence.

    It was only recently that marriage define extended to same-sex couples and it was only in the s that homosexuality was removed from the Diagnostic Manual of Mental Disorders.

    Before that, psychiatrists viewed homosexuality as a mental disorder. Homophobia is a related concept, as it is having a fear of gay people or a fear of being around people who are not heterosexual. The term 'homophobia' was first used by psychologist George Weinberg, who coined it to describe derine fear that people feel toward gay people.

    Weinberg also argued that it's not just straight people fearing gay people. Homophobia can also be internalized. This means that people who are gay come to fear being different and internalize the hatred they feel around them. Some have argued that word phobia might not be the best way to describe prejudice against gays and lesbians because phobia conjures something like an innate fear instead of larger hetfrosexism factors. Phobia might be too individualistic to describe anti-gay prejudice or the way that society has constructed heterosexuality, heterosexism is a good segue to talk about that history.

    Has heterosexuality always been so dominant in our culture? Some define derine no. Social scientists have argued that sexuality is not a universal or a constant.

    In fact, scholars have argued that geterosexism number of factors worked together to create the category of heterosexuality that has become so dominant today. A lot of this had to do with the heterosexism of the medical profession. Doctors in the U. Sex began to be seen as strictly for procreation, which meant that relationships outside of heterosexuality were viewed as abnormal or even pathological.

    So, heterosexuality was created as a category and eventually, it became a way to justify unequal treatment of those who do not heterosexism as heterosexual. Heterosexism wasn't simply a given but define had to be created and then reinforced.

    In Western society when we think about sexuality and our sexual orientation we tend to privilege heterosexuality, or opposite sex relationships, as the dominant and most legitimate form of partnering.

    This is known as heterosexism and it's an ideology that insists that define heterosexual relationships are legitimate. But it's more than simply negative attitudes towards gays and lesbians in our society.

    It's a system of social stratification that shapes life chances and can lead to discrimination. Homophobia is a concept developed by psychologist George Weinberg to describe the fear that heterosexual people feel toward gay people.

    It define also mean the way that gay people internalize the hatred around them and come to hate being different.

    But heterosexuality wasn't always the dominant form of sexuality. Scholars have suggested that this was created as a category through our society and then came to be the dominant form of sexuality. As the medical establishment grew, it came to define what was normal and what was not in terms of sexuality. Homosexuality came to be seen as deviant. This define a powerful force in shaping heterosexism.

    To unlock this lesson you must be a Study. Create your account. Already a member? Log In. Already registered? Log in here for access. Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare you to earn credit by exam that is accepted by heterosdxism 1, colleges and universities. You can test out of the first two years of college and save thousands off your degree. Anyone can earn credit-by-exam regardless of age or education level. To learn more, visit our Earning Credit Page. Not sure what college you want to attend yet?

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    I love the way expert tutors clearly explains the answers to my homework deefine. Keep up the good work! The videos on Study. Heterosexiam in. Sign Up. Explore over 4, video courses. Find a degree that fits your goals. Try it risk-free for 30 days. Instructor: Emily Cummins. Save Save Save. Want to watch this again define Heterosexuality is considered the dominant form of sexuality in our heterowexism.

    In this lesson, we'll talk about heterosexism, which is the idea that heterosexuality is the only form of sexuality. We'll also discuss homophobia, which refers to a hatred of individuals who do not identify as heterosexual. Human Sexuality What do you think of when you think of a wedding? Heterosexuality is viewed as the dominant form of sexuality in our society Heterosexism First a few definitions. It was only recently that marriage was extended to same-sex couples Homophobia Homophobia is a related concept, as it is having a heterosexlsm of gay people or a fear of being around people who are not heterosexual.

    Try it risk-free No obligation, cancel anytime. Want to learn devine Creating Heterosexuality Has heterosexuality always been so dominant in our culture? Lesson Summary In Western society when we think about sexuality and our sexual orientation we tend to privilege heterosexuality, or opposite sex relationships, as the dominant and most legitimate form of partnering. Register to view this lesson Are you a student or a teacher? I am a student I am a teacher.

    Unlock Your Education See for yourself why 30 million people use Study. Become a Member Already definw member? What teachers are saying about Study. Earning Credit. Earning College Credit Did you know… We have over college courses that prepare heterosexism to earn credit by exam that is accepted by over 1, colleges and universities.

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    Area of Study. Degree Level. D in History? You are viewing lesson Lesson 7 in chapter 5 of the course:. Introduction to Culture. Categories of Social Ideologies of Social Difference. Stratification of Heteroseixsm in Theories of Prejudice. Relations in the Multicultural Ch Native Americans in the

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    Heterosexism definition is - discrimination or prejudice by heterosexuals against homosexuals. Heterosexism is the societal and institutional reinforcement of J:\LGBTQ\Safe Zone\Manual\Section 2 - Homophobia and Language\1 What is Heterosexism.​doc. The American Heritage Dictionary ( edition) defines homophobia as racism and sexism, heterosexism pervades societal customs and institutions.

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    Urban Dictionary: heterosexismHeterosexism dictionary definition | heterosexism defined

    Heterosexism is a system of attitudesbiasand discrimination in favor of opposite-sex sexuality and relationships. Although heterosexism is defined in the online editions of the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language and the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary as heterosexism discrimination or prejudice "by heterosexual people" [3] and "by heterosexuals", [4] respectively, people of any sexual orientation can hold such attitudes and bias, and can form a part of internalised hatred of one's sexual orientation.

    Heterosexism as discrimination ranks gay men, lesbiansbisexuals and other sexual minorities as second-class citizens with regard to various legal and civil rightseconomic opportunities, and social equality in many define the world's jurisdictions and societies. It is often related to homophobia.

    While the Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary notes first use of the term heterosexism as having occurred inthe term was first published in by gay rights activistCraig Rodwell. Similar terms include "heterocentrism" and "heterosexualism". In fact, the word heterosexualism has been used as an equivalent to sexism and racism. Given this lack of semantic transparencyresearchers, outreach workers, critical theorists and LGBT activists have proposed and define terms such as institutionalized homophobiastate -sponsored homophobia[9] sexual prejudiceanti-gay bigotrystraight privilegeThe Straight Mind a collection of essays by French writer Monique Wittigheterosexual biascompulsory heterosexuality [10] or the much lesser known terms heterocentrismhomonegativityand from gender define and queer theoryheteronormativity.

    However, not all of these descriptors are synonymous to heterosexism. Homophobiaa form of heterosexism, refers both to "unreasoning fear of or antipathy towards homosexuals and homosexuality" [11] and to "behavior based on such a feeling".

    Researcher, author, and psychology professor Gregory M. Herek states that "[Heterosexism] operates through a dual process of invisibility and attack. Homosexuality heterosexism remains culturally invisible; when people who engage in homosexual behavior or who are identified as homosexual become visible, they are subject to attack by society. It has been argued that the concept of heterosexism is similar to the concept of racism in that both ideas promote privilege for dominant groups within a given society.

    For example, borrowing from the racial concept of white privilegethe concept of heterosexual privilege [16] has been applied to benefits of presumed heterosexuality within society that heterosexuals take for granted. The analogy is that just as racism against non-white people places white people as superior to people of colorheterosexism places heterosexual people or relationships as superior to non-heterosexual ones.

    In trying to rebut this premise, some commentators point to differences [17] between the categories of race heterosexism sexual orientation, claiming they are too complex to support any generalizations. For example, " trainer on diversity " and consultant Jamie Washington has commented, although heterosexism and racism are "woven from the same fabric" they are "not the same thing".

    Irene Monroe comment that those who suggest or state "gay is the new black", as in a cover story of The Advocate magazine, [19] exploit black define 's suffering and experiences to legitimize their own. Heterosexism can also intersect with racism by further emphasizing differences among arbitrary groups of people. Likewise, racism can allow LGBT people to be subjected to additional discrimination heterosexism violence if they belong to or are considered a part of a socially devalued racial category.

    Heterosexism as a set of beliefs and attitudes relies on a core tenet according to which homosexuality and bisexuality do not normally exist and, as such, constitute mental illnesses or deviant behaviors.

    A set of more nuanced heterosexist views, which some may consider faith, dogmauniversal truthsnatural law, appeals to authorityor popular beliefs, but others consider to be conventional wisdom or sociobiological knowledge can include, among others, the following:.

    In an attempt to bring awareness to people who exhibit heterosexist views but are possibly not aware of it, Mark Rochlin constructed a set of questions in which are questions that non-heterosexual people are often exposed to, but not heterosexuals, such as " What do you think caused your sexuality?

    As well as comprising attitudes held by an individual or a social group, heterosexism can also exist as the expression of attitudes within an heterosexism. As a result, schools, hospitals, and correctional facilities can act as a showcase for heterosexist attitudes in various ways.

    First, schools may implement these attitudes and ideas through unequal and inconsistent disciplinary actions. One such example is meting out harsher punishment to a same-sex couple violating the school ground rules while allowing a heterosexual couple to pass with an easier and more subtle disciplinary action for an equal or identical violation. Also, hospitals may limit patient visiting only to immediate family, i.

    Heterosexism affects the family in several ways. For example, in many countries around the world, same-sex marriage is not allowed, so non-heterosexual persons must remain unmarried or enter into heterosexual marriage. Psychologists have aimed to measure heterosexism using various methods. One particular method involves the use of a Likert scale. However, since heterosexism is perceived as something that is unseen it is difficult to determine if someone is heterosexist based on a self-report method.

    Researchers, thus, have constructed implicit measurements of heterosexism. An example of this would be an Implicit Association Test. A popular implicit association test measuring heterosexism that is open to the public is a virtual laboratory called Project Implicit. Individuals are more likely to be heterosexism of homophobic tendencies rather than heterosexist views, thus, researchers often measure homophobia instead of heterosexism. Research on heterosexism has focused on variables that may affect views of heterosexism.

    For instance, in a study by psychologist, Gregory M. Herekit was found that there was a gender difference between heterosexual attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Another notable finding of Herek's study was that heterosexual males showed a greater tendency to demonstrate hostility towards gay men rather than lesbians.

    This type of heterosexism includes anti-gay laws, policies, and institutional practices, harassment based on sexual orientation or perceived sexual orientation; stereotypingdiscriminatory language and discourse, and other forms of discrimination against LGBT persons such as:. This form of heterosexism define through invisibility, under-representation, and erasure. It includes:.

    Heterosexism causes a range of effects on people of any sexual orientation. Heterosexism, the main effects of heterosexism are marginalization, and anti-LGBT violence and abuse.

    The main effect of heterosexism is the marginalization of gay men, lesbians, and bisexuals within society. Heterosexism has led to stigmatization and persecution of not only these people but also those of other sexual diversity such as transgender, and transsexual people.

    Along with homophobialesbophobiaand internalized homophobiaheterosexism continues to be a significant social reality that compels people to conceal their homosexual or bisexual orientation, or metaphorically, to remain in the closet in an effort to pass for heterosexual.

    Marginalization also occurs when marriage rights are heterosexist. Moreover, such limitation prevents same-sex couples from receiving the inherent social respect of marriage and its cultural symbolism. Yolanda Dreyer, professor of practical theology at University of Pretoriahas stated that "Heterosexism leads to prejudice, discrimination, harassment, and violence. It is driven by fear and hatred Dreyer 5. Similarly, any woman who opposes male dominance and control can be labeled a lesbian and attacked.

    The potential of being ostracized as homosexual, regardless of actual sexual attractions and behaviors, puts pressure on all people to conform to a narrow standard of appropriate gender behavior, define maintaining and reinforcing our heterosexism hierarchical gender structure. Another form of heterosexist violence as social control that most often targets lesbian women is corrective rape : a gang rape of a lesbian to "cure" her of her same-sex attractions.

    A notorious example from Heterosexism Africa is the corrective rape and murder of Eudy SimelaneLGBT-rights activist and member of the women's national football team.

    According to a Frontline article define Inside the Mind of People Who Hate Gays, bias-related violence against homosexuals is believed to be widespread in the United States, with perpetrators typically described by victims as young men in groups who assault targets of convenience. Victims accounts suggest that assailants possess tremendous rage and hatred; indeed, documentation of horrific levels of brutality has led gay activists to characterize the violence as political terrorism aimed at all gay men and lesbians.

    Other motives for antigay violence suggested in the literature include male bonding, proving heterosexuality, and purging secret homosexual desires.

    According to an article in the Howard Journal of Communications, some LGBT individuals have responded to heterosexism through direct confrontation and communication, or define the removal of self from the hostile environment. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Homosexuality Bisexuality pansexuality polysexuality Asexuality gray asexuality Demographics Biology Environment. Social attitudes. Prejudiceviolence. Academic fields and discourse.

    Queer studies Lesbian feminism Queer theory Transfeminism Lavender linguistics. See also: Religion define homosexualityHomosexuality and psychologySexual orientation and medicine disambiguationand Social attitudes toward homosexuality. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources.

    Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. LGBT portal Society portal. Heterosexism: An Ethical Challenge. State University of New York Press. Addressing Homophobia and Heterosexism on College Campuses. The definition for heterosexism that I used for authors in the collection is: The expectation that all persons should be or are heterosexual. The belief that heterosexual relations are normal and the norm.

    These expectations and beliefs occur on individual, institutional, and cultural levels. Retrieved 4 July Retrieved 3 Heterosexism The Dictionary of Psychology. Archived from the original on Retrieved The Gender Knot. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Archived from the original on March 2, Retrieved Define 29, Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?

    Basic Books. Encyclopedia of Race and Racism, 2, 1—4. Journal of Homosexuality, 1 1— Teaching for Diversity and Social Justice 2 ed. The psychology of sexual prejudice. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 9 1 : 19— Heterosexual's attitudes toward lesbians and gay men: Correlates and gender differences. Journal of Sex Research. Development and validation of the Homophobia scale.