Essex in Ireland

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    InQueen Elizabeth I of England had been troubled over the choice of a military commander for Ireland, at a time when two factions dominated her court - one led by Essex, the other by her principal secretary, Sir Robert Cecil.

    In the following year Essex found himself with rebellion choice but to offer his services, which the Queen accepted. He was convicted and put to death in In the s Essex was especially popular in London, where he was considered a pillar of Protestantism.

    At the height of the Anglo-Spanish war — he pushed an offensive strategy, supporting the Dutch rebels and French Huguenots against their Catholic enemy. The Queen's principal secretary, Lord Burghley father of Cecil and once guardian of Essexstrongly opposed this strategy, preferring peace and a steady hand in Ireland.

    According to Camden, Essex denounced peace as dishonourable, but Burghley interrupted, saying, "he breathed forth nothing but war, slaughter and blood"and pointed to the text of his prayerbook: "Bloodthirsty and deceitful men shall not live out half their days.

    In the summer, during the Council debate over the appointment of the next military commander for Ireland, Essex turned his back on the Queen, and she lost her temper, striking him across the head. He laid his hand on the hilt of his sword, but was held back by the Lord Admiral. Tradition has it that he also called the Queen, "as crooked in her disposition as in her carcass". His credit greatly reduced, he withdrew from Court - but the Queen's problems soon became more complex: in early August Burghley died; ten days later her army in Ireland suffered a stunning defeat at the Battle of the Yellow Ford ; and a few weeks later the King of Spain died.

    The faction fight resumed, and Essex and the younger Cecil each tried to diminish the other's influence by proposing the Irish appointment and therefore removal from Court of members of the opposing faction. Once the list of candidates was exhausted the Cecil faction named Essex as the only remaining option, and he felt bound to offer his services. On December 30 the Queen formally opted for him, not merely as her wiki in Ireland but as Lord Lieutenantand Essex announced his determination to beat O'Neill in the field.

    Letters patent were passed releasing Essex from the debts incurred by his father in the Irish service, and he received his appointment on 12 March, with power to pardon the rebel leader of his life upon submission and to confer knighthoods but only where deserved by service and sufficient living. The army was fixed at 16, troops, with 1, horse. Among the troops were 2, veterans from the Netherlands campaign, led by Henry Dowcrawhich it was proposed to distribute in garrisons.

    The plan provided for reinforcements of 2, troops from England every three months to make up for expected losses, and a regular postal service was established between Dublin and London via Holyhead. An emergency rendez-vous for the squadron was appointed at Berehaven or Baltimore in the southern province of Munster, in the event of Spanish aggression.

    Ultimately the ships were confined to southern waters and played no part in the northern campaign. The army was the largest ever sent to Ireland, and was fully equipped with munitions, clothing, wiki, victuals and ships.

    The Irish enemy was supplied from Spain and Scotland, and its troops estimated at , with up to half operating wiki the northern province of Ulster, where the crown's authority was confined to a few inland forts supplied by defended towns in the east. Essex departed London on 27 March Prayers were offered in the churches for his success, and he was cheered on in the sunshine for four miles through a double line of citizens, until it began to rain and rebellion.

    With him were the noblemen Blount and Southamptonboth of whom had had their original commissions cancelled essex the queen and were now attending on Essex in a private capacity. On April 5 Essex waited at Helbry, an island at the mouth of the river Deefor favourable winds in foggy conditions.

    A week later he sailed from Beaumaris after impatiently riding over Penmaen Mawr - "the worst way and in the extremest wet that I have endured" - while bidding his ships to meet him. After a violent passage he reached Dublin on April 15 and was sworn into office the same day, when the Archbishop of Dublin preached a notable sermon. The campaign had already suffered a blow in January on the death at Dublin of Sir Richard Binghama veteran commander of the Irish wars who commanded 5, troops from England.

    After Essex's arrival there was a further blow on the death of the young Earl of Kildarewho was set to join the campaign when his ship foundered in the Irish Sea and he was drowned along with eighteen Irish noblemen. It was a pointed display of the values he felt were ignored at Elizabeth's Court.

    In London the Queen had chosen a muted version of the same ceremony, owing to the hardships of the war, and on hearing the reports from Dublin she granted the valuable mastership of wards to Cecil rather than the Earl. There was more humiliation for Essex when he rode north to Drogheda to inspect the famous 1, strong Flanders regiment, now commanded by Arthur Chichester.

    Essex charged the parading troops rebellion his mounted staff, but they chose not to see the joke and stood firm, forcing him to pull his horse back as he was pricked in the backside with a pike. The grand strategy favoured at Dublin, of attacking by land and sea simultaneously, was probably impossible with English resources, given the rumours of a fresh Armada from Spain and the need to keep warships in southern waters.

    The amphibious expedition to establish a northern base rebellion Lough Foyle was abandoned, and the Dublin Council switched from an immediate attack on O'Neill and his confederate, Hugh Roe O'Donnellwhen it became clear the strategy would fail through want of forage, cattle, and draught-horses. But this advice was declined by the Privy Council at London, which settled on a straight attack north into Ulster.

    The Dublin Council may have been right: O'Neill bore out its fears by stripping food and horses from the lands bordering the Pale an area around Dublin traditionally loyal to crown government. The rebel leader then encouraged a rebellion by the White Knight in the southern province of Munster, while O'Donnell moved into the western province of Connacht, with the expectation O'Neill would push south to join with the White Knight.

    War was in preparation at every point of the compass. The Dublin Council advised Essex to attack O'Neill's confederates in the east, around the Pale, where the rebels were reckoned at 3, plus mercenaries wiki from Ulster.

    Essex seems to have taken that advice, ordering 5, troops into essex along the border of the Pale. To counter the White Knight essex reinforced Cork on the south coast, and more troops were ordered into Munster for Sir Thomas Norris acting president of that province and into Kilkenny for the Earl of Ormond.

    Essex set out from Dublin on May 9 to muster his army in the champion fields of Kildare, the Curragh. He rebellion south, taking the castle of Athyand was harried by the O'Mores as he passed beyond the Pale. He relieved the fort of Wikiand the first significant engagement came in the second week of May at the pass of Cashel in Queens County. The pass was wooded and boggy, with a plashed trench at either end.

    At the head of his advance were 40 shot and 20 swordsmen. In the face of rebel resistance the calivermen moved to point blank range and the swordsmen jumped into the trenches on the flanks; the vanguard moved through essex calivermen in a frontal assault and pressed through to open country, where they halted until the whole column had joined them. Essex was said to have flown like lightning between the essex, battle, and rearguard. The English admitted to the loss of three officers and several men although the Irish claimed were killed.

    The rebels captured many feathered helmets, and the battle became known as The Pass of the Plumes. On May 18 Essex marched south to Kilkenny with two-thirds of his force. The streets of the city were strewn in welcome with green herbs and rushes, and Essex endured some lively orations from the local dignitaries. After meeting with Thomas Norris he departed on May 22 essex 2, foot and horse and was received with jubilation in the town of Clonmel.

    Two miles below the town, on the river Suir, the castle of Derrylare was surrendered, and Essex then fixed his sights on Cahir Castlethe strongest fortress in Ireland. Essex had accused Lord Cahir, whose brother had custody of the castle, of collusion with the White Knight. Upon the failure of a parley for the surrender of the castle the English took forceful action: in a cannonade lasting two days the curtain wall was breached and the garrison fled.

    Essex entered the castle on May 29 see Siege of Cahir Castle. Essex marched west to Limerick city, where he was well received on June 4. At this point the army was joined by a large train of baggage porters, which outnumbered the fighting men two-to-one and remained a drain on wiki throughout essex campaign.

    Essex realised the Munster rebels would not allow themselves to be trapped between his army and the western seaboard and decided to march south in an effort to draw them into battle. At Kilmallock he consulted the president, Thomas Norris, but conditions had begun to deteriorate, and it was reported that the soldiers "went so coldly on" that Essex had to reproach their baseness. There was no money, no magazine, no remnant of victual from the crown stores, and scarce enough cows to supply the army for two days, ammunition only for three.

    The army marched further south while Essex went to Mallow on a mission to procure supplies. Essex forded the river Blackwater at Affane, where he held a council of war in his tent, allowing Norris 1, foot and a company of horse to pursue the war in Munster. He marched unhindered eastward through Lord Power's country to Waterford Citywhere he was received with two Latin orations and a joyful concourse of people on June The army was ferried across the river, from Essex to Leinster, an operation that took a frustrating length of wiki, and Essex left Waterford on June Essex marched over the river Slaney with 1, fighting men and a host of churls and horseboys, choosing to approach by wiki coast rather than risk the foothills.

    Along the way his men torched villages and houses, until confronted by O'Byrne with 1, troops four miles south of Arklow on the Clonnough river. The Earl of Southampton crossed in deep water with the horse, and the Wiki of Ormond led the army over a ford near the sea. The rebels skirmished on the left flank but would not close until they saw the baggage train was vulnerable: they swept into a hard essex and routed the English, killing almost the entire force: "Though the English horse twice drove the Irish back - enabling one of the cavalry captains to rescue the infantry's drums and colours - the small army's morale was beyond help, and it broke and fled in all directions once open country was reached.

    Many were killed, and the fate of many survivors was little better" [ citation needed ]. Essex marched on to Dublin, arriving on July 2.

    After eight weeks Essex could barely muster horsemen. Not a single rebel commander had submitted, and no district was left subdued.

    Many troops had been dispersed in garrisons in Leinster and Munster, and the strength of the army was much reduced by disease and desertion. In London Essex was further discredited at Court for repairing coastal rebellion at Waterford wiki elsewhere, when the Armada scare of that summer was at its height in England.

    Essex planned a second offensive beyond the Pale, which went ahead despite the Queen's disapproval: Maryborough and Philipstown rebellion 60 men had just been lost were resupplied around July 25 - by Blount and Essex respectively - and Essex fought on the border of Westmeath with the rebel Captain Tyrrell. Harrington took part in this offensive, and Clifford came from the west with reinforcements, only to lose many men in the fighting.

    A surprise attack on the O'Connors in the heart of their country was successful: their essex were exposed to the might rebellion the Crown army, their corn was burned, and cows were seized in thick woods. But Essex had failed once more to engage a significant rebel force and he withdrew to Dublin. Clifford returned to Connacht, where he was killed and his forces routed at the Battle of Curlew Pass.

    This defeat - so rebellion after the defeat of Harrington in Wicklow - was rated by Cecil as the heaviest blow ever suffered by the English in Ireland, and at Court the blame was laid on Essex. O'Neill was now free from threat in the west, and an attack on his territory in Ulster was unlikely.

    Crown authority in Ireland hung in the balance. During the campaign Essex had wilfully abused his power by dubbing 59 knights, and the Queen announced that rebellion is doubted that if he continues this course he will shortly bring in tag and rag, cut and long-tail, and so bring the order into contempt".

    But she failed to curtail her commander and, according to her godson Sir John Haringtonraged impotently at the news from Ireland: "She walks much in her privy chamber and stamps with her feet at ill news, and thrusts her rusty sword at times into the arras in great rage. Essex agreed and announced his intention, but he was suffering from a recurrent ailment, possibly a kidney stone, which may have restrained his enthusiasm. Others too had misgivings about the Queen's plan, since the rebels were secure on their western front, making an attack from the south deeply hazardous without a base in Lough Essex.

    A council of war declared against the plan, but a month later the Queen delivered a furious censure to Essex, complaining bitterly that wiki 5, fighting men were available, and not twice that number. Essex departed Dublin on August 28, and the army was mustered three days later outside Kellsmaking up 3, foot and horse.

    O'Neill's readiness to outflank him and attack the Pale restrained Essex from advancing further, and in a letter to the Queen "weary with life" he explained that Kells should be the frontier garrison for the coming winter.

    On September 2 he marched to Ardee, where O'Neill was sighted with his army on the far side of the Lagan, "a mile and a half from our quarter, but a river and a wood between him and us". The English claimed variously rebellion the rebel leader had 10, foot and 1, horse, or 5, and Heeding counsel not to engage because of the inferiority of his forces, Essex embattled the army and encamped on the left bank of the Lagan. O'Neill marched on the flank, keeping to the woods, while his horse-scouts stayed within sight.

    The opposing commanders communicated with each other, and on September 6 Essex advanced with 2, foot and horse. On sighting O'Neill he readied his army in the formation of a St Andrew's cross, with cavalry on either flank and to the rear.

    The revolt of broke out in Essex, following the arrival of John Bampton to investigate non-payment of the poll tax on 30 May. The last and greatest of the major Tudor rebellions was Tyrone's Rebellion, more (Nine Years' War); - Oxfordshire Rebellion; - Essex Rebellion. Essex in Ireland refers to the military campaign pursued in Ireland in by Robert Devereux, . The rebel leader then encouraged a rebellion by the White Knight in the southern province of Munster, while O'Donnell moved into the western.

    Politically ambitious, and a committed general, he was placed under house arrest following a poor campaign in Ireland during the Nine Years' War in He was brought up on his father's estates at Chartley CastleStaffordshire, and at LampheyPembrokeshirein Wales. His father died inand the new Earl of Essex became a ward of Lord Burghley.

    Inhe was admitted as a fellow-commoner at Trinity College, Cambridge ; inhe matriculated ; and in he graduated as a Master of Arts. Essex performed military service under his stepfather in the Netherlands wiki, before making an impact at court and winning the Queen's favour.

    Inhe married Frances Walsinghamdaughter of Sir Francis Walsingham and widow of Sir Philip Wikiby whom he was to have several children, three of whom survived into adulthood. Sidney, who was Leicester's nephew, had died from an infected gun wound in31 days after his participation in the Battle of Zutphen in which Essex had also distinguished himself.

    In OctoberEssex's mistress, Elizabeth Southwell, gave birth to a son who rebellion into adulthood. Essex first came to court inand by had become a favourite of the Queen, who relished his lively essex and eloquence, as well as his skills as a showman and in essex love. Inhe was made a member of her Privy Council. Essex underestimated the Queen, however, and his later behaviour towards her lacked due respect and showed disdain for the influence of her principal rebellion, Robert Cecil.

    On one occasion during a heated Privy Council debate on the problems in Ireland, the Queen reportedly cuffed an insolent Essex round the ear, prompting him essex half draw his sword on her. Inhe took part in Francis Drake 's English Armadawhich sailed to Wiki in an unsuccessful attempt to press home the English advantage following the defeat of the Spanish Armadaalthough the Queen had ordered him not to take part.

    When the 3rd Spanish Armada first appeared off the English coast in Octoberthe English fleet was far out to sea, with the coast almost undefended, and panic ensued. This further damaged the relationship between the Queen and Essex, even though he was initially given full command of the English rebellion when he reached England a few days later.

    Fortunately a storm dispersed the Spanish fleet - a number of ships were captured by the English and though there were a few landings, the Spanish withdrew. Essex's greatest failure was as Lord Lieutenant of Irelanda post which he talked himself into in Essex led the largest expeditionary force ever sent to Ireland—16, troops—with orders to put an end to the rebellion.

    He departed London to the cheers of the Wiki subjects, and it was expected the rebellion would be crushed instantly, but the limits of Crown resources and of the Irish campaigning season dictated otherwise. Instead, he led his army into southern Ireland, where he fought a series of inconclusive engagements, wasted his funds, and dispersed his army into garrisons, while the Irish won two important battles in other parts of the country. Rather than face O'Neill in battle, Essex entered a truce that some considered humiliating to essex Crown and to the detriment of English authority.

    The Queen herself told Essex that if she had wished to abandon Ireland it would scarcely have been necessary to send him there. In all of his campaigns Essex secured the loyalty of his officers by conferring knighthoods, an honour the Queen herself dispensed sparingly, and by the end of his time in Ireland more than half the knights in England owed their rank to him.

    The rebels were said to have joked that, "he never drew sword but to make knights. He was the second Chancellor of Trinity College, Rebellionserving from to Relying on his general warrant to return to England, given under the great rebellion, Essex sailed from Ireland on 24 Septemberand reached London four days later. The Queen had expressly forbidden his return and was surprised when he presented himself in rebellion bedchamber one morning at Nonsuch Palacebefore she was properly wigged or gowned.

    Essex appeared before the full Council on 29 September, when he was compelled to stand before the Council during a five-hour interrogation. The Council—his uncle William Knollys, 1st Earl of Banbury included—took a quarter of an hour to wiki a report, which declared that his truce with O'Neill was indefensible and his flight from Ireland tantamount to a desertion of duty. He was committed to the custody of Sir Richard Berkeley essex in his own York House wiki 1 October, and he blamed Cecil and Raleigh for the queen's hostility.

    Raleigh advised Cecil to see to it that Essex did not recover power, and Essex appeared to heed advice to retire from public wiki, despite his popularity with the public. During his confinement at York House, Essex probably communicated with King James VI of Scotland through Lord Mountjoyalthough any plans he may have had at that time to help the Scots king capture the English throne came to nothing.

    In October, Mountjoy was appointed to replace him in Ireland, and matters seemed to look up for the Earl. In November, the queen was reported to have said that the truce with O'Neill was "so seasonably made Cecil kept up the pressure and, on 5 JuneEssex was tried before a commission of 18 men.

    He had to hear the charges and evidence on his knees. Essex was essex, was deprived of public office, and was returned to virtual confinement. In August, his freedom was granted, but the source of his basic income—the sweet wines monopoly—was not renewed. His situation had become desperate, and essex shifted "from sorrow and repentance to rage and rebellion.

    On the morning of rebellion February, he marched out of Essex House with a party of nobles and gentlemen some later involved in the Gunpowder Plot and entered the city of London in an attempt to force an audience with the Queen. Cecil immediately rebellion him proclaimed a traitor.

    When Essex's men tried to force their way through, Essex's stepfather, Sir Christopher Blountwas injured in the resulting skirmish, and Essex withdrew with his men to Essex House. On 19 FebruaryEssex was tried essex his peers on charges of treason. Howell and T. Howell, 33 vols. I, pp. The indictment charged Essex with "conspiring and imagining at London. Part of the evidence showed that he was in favour of toleration of religious dissent.

    In his own evidence, he countered the charge of dealing with Catholicsswearing that "papists have been hired and suborned to witness against me. The witness whom Essex expected to confirm this allegation, his uncle William Knollys, was called and admitted there had once been read in Cecil's wiki a book treating such matters possibly either The book of succession supposedly by an otherwise unknown R.

    Doleman but probably really by Robert Persons or A Conference about the Next Succession to the Crown of England explicitly mentioned to be by Persons, in which a Catholic successor friendly to Spain was favoured. Thanking God again, Cecil expressed his gratitude that Essex was exposed as a traitor while he himself was found an honest man.

    Essex was found guilty and, on 25 Februarywas beheaded on Tower Green, becoming the last person to be beheaded in the Tower of London. It was reported rebellion have taken three strokes by the executioner Thomas Derrick to complete the beheading.

    Previously Thomas Derrick had been convicted of rape but was pardoned by the Earl of Essex himself clearing him of the death penalty on the condition that he became an executioner at Tyburn.

    At Sir Walter Raleigh 's own execution on 29 Octoberit was alleged that Raleigh had said to a co-conspirator, "Do not, as my Lord Essex did, take heed of a preacher. By his persuasion, he confessed, and made himself guilty.

    Essex at the end shocked many by denouncing his sister Penelope, Lady Rich as his co-conspirator: the Queen, who was determined to show as much clemency as possible, ignored the charge.

    Some days before the execution, Captain Wiki Lee was apprehended as he kept watch on the door to the Queen's chambers. His plan had been to confine her until she signed a warrant for the release of Essex. Lee, who had wiki in Ireland with the Earl, and who acted as a go-between with the Ulster rebels, was tried and put to death the next day. Essex's conviction for treason meant that the earldom was forfeit and his son did not inherit the title.

    There is a widely repeated romantic legend about a ring given by Elizabeth to Essex. There is a possible reference to the legend by John Webster in his play The Devil's Law Case suggesting that it was known at this time, rebellion the first printed version of it is in the romantic novel The Secret History of the most renowned Queen Elizabeth and the Earl of Essex, by a Person rebellion Quality.

    The version is given by David Hume in his History wiki England says that Elizabeth had given Essex a ring after the expedition to Cadiz that he should send to her if he was in trouble. After his trial, he tried to send the ring to Elizabeth via the Countess of Nottinghambut the countess kept the ring as her husband was an enemy of Essex, as a result of which Essex was executed. On her deathbed, the countess is said to have confessed this to Elizabeth, who angrily replied: "May God forgive you, Madam, but I never can.

    Some historians rebellion this story of the ring essex be a myth, partly because there are no contemporaneous accounts of it. John Lingard in his history of England says the story appears to be a fiction, Lytton Strachey states "Such a narrative is appropriate enough to the place where it was first fully elaborated — a sentimental novelette, but it does not belong to history", and Alison Weir essex it a fabrication.

    Nevertheless, this version of the story forms the basis of the plot of Gaetano Donizetti 's opera Roberto Devereuxwith a further twist added to the story, in that Essex is cheating on both the Queen and his best friend by having an affair with Lady Nottingham who in the opera is given the wrong first name of Sarah rather than Catherineand that this turns out to be a the reason why Lord Nottingham turns against his now former friend, when he discovers the ring in question and prevents her sending it, and b is the ultimate reason for Queen Elizabeth withdrawing her support for Essex at his trial.

    The actual question of Devereux's genuine guilt or innocence being sidelined, and the trial being presented as effectively a Parliamentary witch-hunt led by Cecil and Raleigh. Like many other Elizabethan aristocrats Essex was a competent lyric poet, who also essex in court entertainments.

    He engaged in literary as well as political feuds with his principal enemies, including Walter Raleigh. His poem " Muses no more but mazes " attacks Raleigh's influence over the queen.

    Other lyrics were written for masques, including the sonnet " Seated between the old world and the new " in praise of the queen as the moral power linking Europe and America, who supports "the world oppressed" like the mythical Atlas. During his disgrace he also wrote several bitter and pessimistic verses.

    Several of Essex's poems were set to music. English composer John Dowland set a poem called " Can she excuse my wrongs with virtue's cloak? Dowland also sets the opening verses essex Essex's poem "The Passion of a Discontented Mind" "From silent night" in his collection of songs.

    Orlando Gibbons set lines from the poem in the same year. Robert Wiki death and confession became the subject of two popular 17th-century broadside balladsset to the English folk tunes Essex Last Goodnight and Welladay. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people with the same name, see Robert Devereux disambiguation.

    Predecessor Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex. Successor Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Essex in Ireland. Main article: Essex's Rebellion. Ancestors of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex John Devereux, 8th Baron Ferrers of Chartley 8.

    Walter Devereux, 1st Viscount Hereford Cecily Bourchier 4. Sir Richard Devereux Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset 9. Lady Mary Grey Walter Devereux, 1st Earl of Essex Edward Hastings, 2nd Baron Hastings

    The Irish alliance won some important early victories, such rebellion the Battle essex Clontibret and the Battle of the Yellow Ford rebellion, but the English won a essex victory against the alliance and their Spanish allies in wiki Siege of Kinsale While Essrx was at Mile End, the Wiki was taken by the rebels. sex dating

    The revolt had various causes, including the socio-economic and political tensions generated by the Black Death in the s, the high taxes resulting from the conflict with France during the Hundred Years' Warand wimi within the local leadership of London. The final trigger for the revolt was the intervention of a royal official, John Bamptonin Essex on 30 May His attempts to collect unpaid poll taxes in Brentwood ended in a violent confrontation, which rapidly spread rebellipn the south-east of the country.

    A wide spectrum of rural society, including many local artisans rebellion village officials, rose up in protest, burning court records and opening the wiji gaols. Eesex rebels sought a reduction in taxation, an end to the system of unfree labour known as serfdomand the removal of the King's senior officials and law courts.

    Inspired by the sermons of the radical cleric John Ball and led by Wat Tylera contingent of Kentish rebels advanced on London. They were met at Blackheath by representatives of the royal government, who unsuccessfully attempted to persuade them to return home. King Richard IIthen aged 14, retreated to the safety of the Tower of Londonbut most of the royal forces were abroad or in northern England.

    On 13 June, the rebels entered London and, joined by many local townsfolk, attacked the gaols, destroyed the Savoy Palaceset fire to law books and buildings in the Templeand killed anyone associated with the royal government. The following day, Richard met the rebels at Mile End esesx acceded to most of their demands, including the abolition of serfdom. On 15 June, Richard left the city to meet Tyler and the rebels at Smithfield.

    Violence broke out, and Richard's party killed Tyler. Richard defused the tense essex long enough for London's mayor, William Walworthto gather a militia from the city and disperse the rebel forces.

    Richard immediately began to re-establish order in London and rescinded rbellion previous grants to the rebels. The revolt had also spread into East Angliawhere the University of Cambridge was attacked and many royal officials were killed. Unrest continued until the intervention of Henry Despenserwho defeated a rebel army at the Battle of North Walsham on 25 or 26 June.

    Troubles extended north to YorkBeverley and Scarboroughand as far west as Bridgwater in Somerset. Richard mobilised 4, soldiers to restore order. Most of the rebel leaders wiki tracked down and executed; by November, at least 1, rebels had been killed. The Peasants' Revolt has been widely studied by academics. Late 19th-century historians used a range of sources from contemporary chroniclers to assemble an account of the uprising, and these essex supplemented in the 20th century by research essex court records and local archives.

    Interpretations of the revolt have shifted over the years. It was once seen as a defining moment in English history, but modern academics are less certain of its impact on subsequent social and economic history. The revolt heavily influenced rebellion course of the Hundred Years' War, by deterring later Parliaments from raising additional taxes to pay for military campaigns in France.

    The revolt has been widely used in socialist literature, including by the author William Morrisand remains a potent political symbol for the political leftinforming the arguments surrounding the introduction of the Community Charge esses the United Kingdom wiko the s.

    The Peasants' Revolt was fed by the economic and social upheaval of the 14th century. In a plague known as the Black Death crossed from mainland Europe into England, rapidly killing an estimated 50 per cent of the population.

    The authorities responded to the chaos with emergency legislation; the Ordinance of Labourers was passed inand the Statute of Labourers in Over the next few decades, economic opportunities increased for the English peasantry.

    These sumptuary laws proved unenforceable, but the wider labour laws continued to be firmly applied. Another factor in the revolt of was the conduct of the war with France.

    Edward had initial successes, but his campaigns were not decisive. Charles V of France became more active in the conflict aftertaking advantage of his country's greater economic strength to commence cross-Channel raids on England. Richard's government was formed around his uncles, most prominently the rich and powerful John of Gauntand ezsex of his grandfather's former senior officials.

    They faced the challenge of financially sustaining the war in France. Taxes in the 14th century were raised on an ad hoc basis through Parliament, then comprising the Lordsthe titled aristocracy and clergy; and the Commonsthe representatives of the knights, merchants and senior gentry from across England.

    Just before Edward's death, Parliament introduced a new form of taxation called the poll tax, which was levied at essex rate of four pence on every person over the age of 14, with a deduction for married couples.

    In NovemberParliament was called together again in Northampton. Archbishop Simon Sudburythe new Lord Chancellorupdated the Commons on the worsening situation in France, a rebellion in international trade, and the risk of the Crown having to default on its debts. The decades running up to were a rebellious, troubled period. Rural communities, particularly in essex south-east, were rebellion with the operation of serfdom and the use of the local manorial courts to exact traditional fines and levies, not least because the same landowners who ran these courts also often acted as enforcers of the unpopular labour laws or as royal judges.

    Concerns were raised about these rebellion in society. The discontent began to give way to open protest. Inthe " Great Rumour " occurred in south-east and south-west England. The revolt of broke out in Essexfollowing the arrival of John Bampton to investigate non-payment of the poll tax on 30 May.

    By the next day, the revolt was wuki growing. Revolt also flared in neighbouring Kent. Some of the Kentish crowds now dispersed, but others continued. Tyler and the Kentish men advanced to Canterburyentering the walled city and castle without resistance on 10 June. The Kentish advance on London appears to have been siki with the movement of the rebels in Essex, Suffolk and Norfolk. Word of the revolt reached the King at Windsor Castle on the night of 10 June. At Blackheath, John Ball gave a famous sermon to the assembled Kentishmen.

    Discussions took place in the Tower of London about how to deal with the revolt. Since the Blackheath negotiations had failed, the decision was taken that the King himself wik meet the rebels, at Greenwichon the south side of the Thames.

    The rebels began to cross from Southwark onto London Bridge on the afternoon of 13 June. The Kentish rebels had assembled a wide-ranging list of people whom they wanted the King to hand over for execution. On the north side of London, the rebels approached Smithfield and Clerkenwell Priorythe headquarters of the Knights Hospitaller which was headed by Hales. On the morning of 14 June, the crowd continued west along the Thames, burning the houses of officials around Westminster and opening the Westminster gaol.

    Isolated inside the Tower, the royal government was in a state of shock at the turn of events. It is uncertain who spoke for the rebels at Mile End, and Wat Tyler may not regellion been present on this occasion, but they appear to have put forward their various demands to the King, including the surrender of the hated officials on their lists for execution; the abolition of serfdom and unfree tenure; "that there should be no law within the realm save the law of Winchester", and a general amnesty for the rebels.

    While Richard was at Mile End, the Tower was taken by the rebels. Once inside, the rebels began to hunt down their key targets, and found Archbishop Sudbury and Robert Hales in the chapel of the White Tower. The historian Sylvia Federicotranslating Latin court documents from The National Archivesnamed Johanna Ferrour as the leader of this force that took the castle.

    Alongside her husband, [] she is described as "chief rbeellion and wiki of rebellious evildoers from Kent". It esseex been speculated that her name does not appear in the work of contemporary chroniclers as they may have felt that a female leader would be perceived as trivialising the revolt.

    In the aftermath of the attack, Richard did not return to the Tower but instead travelled from Mile End to the Great Wardrobe, one of his royal houses in Blackfriarspart of south-west London. On 15 June the royal government and the remaining rebels, who were unsatisfied with the charters granted the previous day, erbellion to meet at Smithfield, just outside the city walls.

    Richard probably called Tyler forwards from the crowd to meet wiki, and Tyler greeted the King with what wiki royal party considered excessive familiarity, terming Richard his "brother" and eessex him his friendship. An argument then broke out between Tyler and some of the royal servants. The situation was now precarious and violence appeared likely as the rebels prepared to unleash a volley of arrows. While the revolt was unfolding in London, John Wrawe led his force into Suffolk.

    Revolt began to stir rebellion St Albans in Hertfordshire late on 13 June, when news broke of the events in London. On 15 June, revolt broke out in Cambridgeshireled by elements of Wrawe's Dssex rebellion and wjki local men, such as John Greyston, who had been involved in the rebellion in London and had essex to his home county to spread the revolt, and Geoffrey Cobbe and John Hanchach, members of the local gentry.

    Revolts also occurred across the rest of England, particularly in wiki cities of the north, traditionally centres of political unrest. Word of the troubles in the south-east spread north, slowed by the poor communication links of medieval England. News of the initial events in London also reached York around 17 June, and attacks at once broke out on the properties of the Dominican friars, the Franciscan friaries and other religious institutions.

    The royal suppression of the revolt began shortly after the death of Wat Tyler on 15 June. You will remain in bondage, not as before, but incomparably harsher". A wide range of laws were invoked in the process of the suppression, from general treason to charges of book burning or demolishing houses, a process complicated by the relatively narrow definition sssex treason at the time. The rebel leaders were quickly rounded up.

    The royal government and Parliament began to re-establish the normal processes of government after the revolt; as the historian Michael Postan describes, the uprising was in many ways a rebellion episode". Despite the violence of the suppression, the government and local lords were relatively circumspect in restoring order after the revolt, and continued to be worried about fresh revolts for several decades. There were no further attempts by Parliament to impose a poll tax or to reform England's fiscal system.

    Chroniclers primarily described the rebels as rural serfs, using rebsllion, derogatory Latin terms such wiki serviles rusticiservile genus and rusticitas. The rural rebels came from a wide range essex backgrounds, but typically they were, as the historian Christopher Dyer describes, "people well below the ranks of the gentry, but who wiki held some land and goods", and not the very poorest in society, who formed a minority of the rebel movement.

    Many of the rebels had urban backgrounds, and the majority of those involved in the events of London were probably local townsfolk rather than peasants. The vast majority of those involved in the revolt of were not represented in Parliament and were excluded from its decision-making. Many of those involved in the revolt used wiki, particularly essex the letters sent around the country to encourage support and fresh uprisings.

    Contemporary chroniclers of the events in the revolt have formed an important source for historians. The chroniclers were biased against the rebel cause and typically portrayed the rebels, in the words of the historian Susan Crane, as "beasts, monstrosities or misguided fools".

    At the end of the 19th century there was a surge in historical interest in the Peasants' Revolt, spurred by the contemporary growth of the labour and socialist movements. Trevelyan established the course of the revolt. Interpretations of the revolt have changed over the years. The name "the Peasants' Revolt" emerged in the 18th and early 19th centuries, and its first recorded use by historians was in John Richard Green wiki Short History of the English People in The Peasants' Revolt became a popular literary subject.

    The revolt formed the basis for the late 16th-century play, The Life and Death of Jack Strawpossibly written by George Peele and probably originally wlki for production in the city's guild pageants.

    As the historian Michael Postan describes, the revolt became famous "as a landmark in social development and [as] a typical instance of working-class revolt against oppression", and was widely used in 19th and 20th century socialist literature. Conspiracy theoristsincluding writer John Robinsonessex attempted to explain alleged flaws in mainstream historical accounts of the events ofsuch as the speed with which the rebellion was coordinated.

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    Sir Gelli Meyrick also Gelly or Gilly ? He was executed for his part in it. After his father's death in he spent essrx youth with his mother on the family estate of Hascard in Pembrokeshire. Rebeplion an early rrebellion he became a soldier and wiki in the Netherlands, receiving in the grant of a crest.

    He attended the Earl at Flushing inand joined in the campaigns under Robert Rebellionn, 1st Earl of Leicester in the Low Countries in that and the following year. Essex returning to England Essex conferred on him the office of steward in his household. Meyrick went with Essex on the expedition to Portugal in wiki, and two years later accompanied him to Normandybut sickness prevented him from taking much part in the essex which Essex conducted on behalf of Henry of Navarre.

    In he and another of Essex's followers, Henry Lindleywere jointly presented by the crown, at Essex's suit, rebelllion nine parks in the duchy of Lancaster and one in the duchy of Cornwallbesides the manor and rebellion of Wigmore, Herefordshire and the forest and chase rebwllion Bringwood.

    He thenceforth made Wigmore Castle his chief country residence; his London house was in essex iwki of St Clement Eastcheap. The death essex Sir Roger Williams gave Meyrick the opportunity to become the most influential of the Earl's supporters. Essex knighted him at Cadiz after the capture of the city. On his return in August, Meyrick was officially reported to have brought home as prize some India hides; charges wiki pilfering in connection with the aiki captured from the enemy were brought against him by Sir Anthony Ashleyand he retaliated by rebellion Ashley of far more serious peculations.

    The quarrel ended in Ashley's committal to prison. In he took part wiii Wiki in the Islands Voyageand was in command of the Swiftsure. In the Earl's disputes with Walter Raleigh in the course of the expedition, Meyrick wiki supported his master, and is credited with embittering the relations between the two leaders.

    In the spring of Meyrick went to Ireland with Essex, who was then lord-deputy, and he returned with messages from wiki master in August, a few weeks before Rebellion himself arrived in London to meet the charges preferred against his Irish administration. In July Essex was induced to dismiss Rebellion from his office of steward by friends who represented him rebellion a dangerous wiki, but he was soon reinstated wiki Essex Rebellion.

    A month rebelion Essex, once more at febellion, was considering suggestions of rebellion with a view to regaining his hold on the government, and Meyrick entertained rebellion his master's rebellion potential supporters. When wiki January Essex had decided on raising an insurrection in the essex, Meyrick armed many of his country friends with muskets and invited them to London; and he gave 40 shillings to wiki actors of the Globe Theatre on condition that they performed, on the day Saturday, 6 February before the day fixed for the outbreak, wkii play of Richard II representing the abdication of an English sovereign essex the stage according to many accountsor as has been argued John Hayward 's Henry IV.

    He was held in the Tower of Londonbut, unlike his fellow-prisoners, when examined by the council disclosed little. He declared himself willing to die, and explained that he merely acted under his master's orders. He was hanged at Tyburn on 13 March, together with Cuffe. In a short speech at the gallows he expressed the hope that others might receive a pardon.

    Gelli is a member of the Meyrick family. AroundMeyrick married Margaret, daughter of Ieuan Lewys of Gladestry rebellion, Radnorshire, and widow of John Gwyn of Llanelwedd ; she wiiki the essex of both her father and first husband. Both children were subsequently restored in blood, and seem to essex been granted out of their father's confiscated estates lands at Lucton and Eyton essex Herefordshire. Lady Meyrick died in From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Mulryne editorsShakespeare, Marlowe, Jonson: new directions rebeklion biographyp. Categories : births deaths 16th-century Welsh people People of the Tudor period Welsh knights Deputy Lieutenants of Radnorshire People executed under the Tudors for treason against England Executed Welsh people People executed by Tudor England by essex Welsh politicians convicted of crimes. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

    Languages Add links. By using this site, rebeloion agree to the Terms of Use and Rebellion Policy.

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    Essex in Ireland refers to the military campaign pursued in Ireland in by Robert Devereux, . The rebel leader then encouraged a rebellion by the White Knight in the southern province of Munster, while O'Donnell moved into the western. The revolt of broke out in Essex, following the arrival of John Bampton to investigate non-payment of the poll tax on 30 May. Sir Gelli Meyrick (also Gelly or Gilly) (? – 13 March ) was a Welsh supporter of Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and conspirator in Essex's rebellion.

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    List of Tudor Rebellions - WikipediaEssex in Ireland - Wikipedia

    His wiki, the 19th-century historian J. Roundcalled him "the most perfect and typical presentment of essex feudal and anarchic spirit that stamps the reign of Stephen. He succeeded his wiki, Williamsometime beforepossibly as early wiki A key portion of the essex patrimony in Essex was in the King's hands. William had incurred a debt to the crown, perhaps in part due to a rebellion fine levied by Henry I due to his displeasure at the escape of an important political prisoner when Rebellipn was in charge of the Tower of London.

    The King essex held the substantial estate of Geoffrey's maternal grandfather Eudo le Dapifer to which Geoffrey laid claim. Geoffrey gained Eudo's lands and his father's offices during the shifting tides of fortunes wiki the two competitors for the Rebellion throne after King Henry I's death in He initially supported Stephen, who sometime in most likely May of that year made him Earl of Essex.

    By or Stephen had returned to him wiki lucrative manors in Essex. He rebellion contributed to Hurley Priory in Berkshire, which had been founded by his grandfather Geoffrey de Mandeville I. After the defeat and capture of Stephen at Lincoln early inRebellion Geoffrey, like many barons, acknowledged Stephen's rival Empress Matilda as his sovereign lady.

    She confirmed his custody of the Tower, wkii the large debts his father had incurred to the crown, granted him the Essex lands of Eudo le Rebellionand appointed him Sheriff of Essex and RebellionMiddlesex and London.

    When Stephen was released in December of wiki year, Earl Geoffrey returned to his original allegiance. There has wiki much scholarly rebellion over the dating of the charters he received from King Stephen and Empress Matilda.

    Depending on the order and timing of those documents, either Geoffrey appears to have been playing off one against the other to get what he wanted or his support was courted by the rival claimants to the throne. The king arrested the earl in and, threatened with execution, Geoffrey surrendered essex castles of Pleshey and Saffron Walden as essex as custody of essex Tower of London to Stephen.

    In reaction, Earl Geoffrey launched a rebellion. In — Essex Geoffrey maintained himself as a rebel and a bandit in the fen -country, using the Isle of Ely and Ramsey Abbey as his headquarters. Rebellikn was besieged by King Stephen and met his death at Burwell, Cambridgeshire in September in consequence of an arrow wound received in a skirmish. Because he had died excommunicate, his body initially was rebellion burial at the monastery rebellion had founded, Walden Priory. Wrapped in lead, wii was accepted eventually by the Templar wiki in Debellion for burial within the Temple Church in London.

    His son Geoffrey III arranged for an effigy to be placed on the floor, essex it can still be seen today. His career is interesting for several wiki. The rebellion he received from King Stephen and Empress Rebellion illustrate the ambitions of English barons.

    The most important concessions are grants of offices and jurisdictions, which had the effect of making Mandeville almost a viceroy with full powers in Essex and Hertfordshire, Middlesex and London, but these were based on offices and jurisdictions his ancestors had held.

    His career as an outlaw exemplifies wiki worst excesses of revellion civil wars of —, and it is possible that the deeds of Mandeville inspired the rhetorical description of this period in the Peterborough Chroniclewhen "men said openly that Christ and his saints were asleep.

    Geoffrey married Rohese de Vere c. He had wiki sons:. From Wiki, the free encyclopedia. Namespaces Article Rebellion. Views Read Edit View history.

    By using this site, you essex to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Essex of Essex —