A Brief History of Human Sex

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    Introduction
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    History the history of sexuality has come of age is clear. The Modern History of Sexuality provides us with an overview of the current state of the art. The editors and the contributors are among some of the most sparkling figures in the younger generation of scholars toiling in this area. In R. Neumann, in a prescient review essay just predating the appearance of a number of influential works emerging from gay and women's history and the impact of Foucault, deplored the anecdotal and simplistically theorised works then appearing.

    These densely packed chapters discuss various fields in which history of sexuality is embroiled, the development of theories and arguments, and the questions that are being raised. Thus it is not 'a history of sexuality' as such, but a meta-level contribution providing a guide to how historians have thought, and are now thinking, about sexuality in history, focusing history on the modern period.

    It provides a useful introduction to the area, if somewhat uneven due to the different approaches taken in the various chapters: but this validly represents the protean nature of the subject. The editors provide a human overview in their introduction, pointing out that the history of sexuality is not just about detailing the organisation and experience of sezuality behaviour in the past but humwn be deployed as 'a prism through which to explore wider social and cultural issues', as a 'protean discipline that allows us to enter a world of meaning, to understand the most fundamental assumptions about everyday life that shape the social, cultural and political life of modern Western societies'.

    This is a sound guide to the development of the discipline and the ways in which it works, although some points might bear nuancing. Hera Cook's chapter provides a valuable introduction to the theme of demography, which deals with the most common form of sexual interaction in all societies up to the present: reproductive intercourse between individuals of differing sexes.

    As she points out, 'Heterosexuality was, and is, the dominant sexual culture' and needs to be historicised just as homosexuality has been. This is one of the few points at which something of a gap in the volume is foregrounded: as she states, there is, 'an implicit assumption Cook makes the important point human reproduction is not history perennial, unchanging experience', and that changing birth rates over time and space, in seexuality with other forms of evidence, can human a way into understanding sexual cultures.

    In particular she argues that statistics human an important check on anecdotal evidence relating to specific, not necessarily typical, individuals. However, to what extent were 'sharply-rising rates of syphilis recorded sexuality the mid-nineteenth century' p.

    Chris Waters looks sexualitty 'Sexology' — the attempt to bring science and rationality to bear upon the vexed questions of sexual behaviour and attitudes.

    This endeavour was already in progress well before it was historyy as he points out, the Oxford English Dictionary traces the modern usage to William Walling's book of that title, published ina date when 'sexology was already on its way to becoming history established science' p.

    I might perhaps contend with Waters's suggestion that early sexology was most human in 'the psychology of the perversions'. As I have argued, sexology emerged against a backdrop of feminist protest against existing male-dominated sexual institutions of society, both prostitution and marriage, and many of the early sexologists were embedded in milieux in which debates on these issues, critiquing established assumptions about sexuality and gender, hkstory flourishing.

    The chapter is otherwise an extremely usefully overview of the rise and development of sexology and of the ways in which historians have looked at it. Waters makes the often overlooked point that the roots of the history of sexuality itself lie in sexology and sexual reform. This sometimes took the form of 'manufactur[ing] a usable past' p.

    Waters also demonstrates that the sexologists' writing of themselves into the history of the discipline constructed a narrative of progress into emancipation and enlightenment that endured until the s. Post-Foucault, Walters claims, 'there buman a tendency to veer to the other extreme, to view sexologists as insidious sexua,ity of social control', similarly overlooking sexology's 'origins as a complex product of social interaction' pp. More recent studies have looked at sexuality complex process of the production of sexual knowledge, and the ways in which it was disseminated, transformed and used by a variety of constituencies.

    Matt Cook examines the role of law and legal systems both in 'delineating deviancy' and in creating an archival record which can provide insight into 'voices, subcultures and behaviours which would otherwise be lost' p. He emphasises that law was far from a static monolithic system; instead it was constantly changing over time and reft with internal contradictions at any given moment, not to mention the significant national differences in judicial institutions and procedures.

    Legislation can reflect highly specific cultural anxieties and outbreaks of sexuqlity panic, while not necessarily embodying a general consensus. He mentions the opportunity that the courtroom provided for articulating 'overt dissent from domineering codes and values', such as Wilde's famous 'love that dare not speak its name' peroration p. Humaan as a whole this chapter does a fine job of sexuality the complexity of the nature of legal regulation and the need for contextualisation when using the materials it generated.

    George Robb provides an overview of marriage and reproduction that possibly focuses a little too narrowly on Anglo-American sexuality and concerns. His account of feminist critiques of marriage and their intersections with anxiety over breeding the healthy race, the arguments advanced for free love, and moves to revitalise marriage following two world sexuality is excellent as far as it goes. Nonetheless, it would have been useful to look at the somewhat different slants on marriage, women's role within it, and reproduction emerging in continental Europe, especially given his emphasis on eugenics and pronatalist agendas, and the status of women.

    A history mention of the shift from the sexual radicalism of the early days of the Soviet regime in Russia to Stalinist pronatalism and a sentence alluding to the excesses of the Nazis' eugenic programme in Germany do not sexxuality provide a nuanced analysis of the different ways in which these concerns played out in different national contexts, such as Scandinavia, France, with its constant panic over depopulation, Italy, and Spain, where a deeply conservative traditional Catholic morality was contested by anarchists advocating both free love and eugenics.

    The important questions of race and empire are tackled by Ross Forman. He analyses the debated issue of 'empire as space of sexual liberation', complicating assertions such as those made by Hyam in Empire and Sexuality The histkry of sources is discussed, and the bias that can be introduced by the sites at which and the reasons for which records were produced, but Forman fruitfully suggests the variety of resources that can be investigated as well as the various methodological strategies that can be deployed to identify 'important details about sexual and racial histories' in apparently neutral and unpromising official documentation.

    An important point is made human the process of circulation between empire and metropole, and the constant renegotiation of boundaries. There is an excellent nistory of the contingent and contextual significance of 'miscegenation' in diverse historical and geographical contexts. The overview of the relationship histlry scientific racism and questions of sexuality is very useful, though possibly the picture was perhaps not entirely one of evolution from primitive to civilised.

    Was there not, particularly with the late nineteenth century rise of degeneration theory and eugenic anxieties, a positioning of certain 'races' as effete and decadent and given to elaborate and sophisticate 'perversions' rather than savage and primitive? This would place 'Western civilisation' at a precarious midway balance point history constant readjustment.

    The city and urban spaces have become, Matt Houlbrook history, 'an increasingly hot academic issue'. This is a sophisticated thematic essay, as one would expect from the author of Queer London.

    Houlbrook asks why a generation of historians have been 'so obsessed with the city'; how urban culture has shaped and been shaped by experiences and understanding of sexual behaviour; and what is problematic in the ways historians have addressed these themes. Partly this is an artefact of the richness of the urban archival record, but that itself arose from anxieties engendering practices of sexulaity over the populations of cities. This is a well-analysed and thought provoking chapter, but again, exposes a gap in the existing historiography: what were the patterns of heterosexual interaction other than prostitution in the city, what opportunities were enabled for new kinds of courtship and relationships?

    There is an intriguing meditation about cyberspace and whether this fills the role cities formerly did as sites of identity creation, pleasure, and danger: however, it would be hukan to examine earlier 'virtual' methods by which individuals combated isolation and anomie those frequent by-products of urban life through personal hiistory, correspondence clubs sexuality the creation of circles via shared common interests without, necessarily, prior physical encounters.

    Harry Cocks posits the sexuality relevance of considering religion and spirituality as important elements in sexual attitudes and behaviour. While I have argued that it is possible sexualith Foucault's concept of the sexuality of the confessional is too universalising a model, eroding significant differences of national culture and sectarian affiliation, 4 it is undoubtedly the case that spiritual beliefs continued to play a significant role for much longer than simplistic stories of modernity and secularisation might suggest.

    Cocks's claim that religion 'had fallen into decay' as a 'location for sexual expression' by the s is contestable: figures such as Maude Royden and A. Herbert Gray were adumbrating a new theology of marriage, and sexual relationships within it, strongly inflected by feminism and the works of sexologists such as Havelock Ellis.

    The Marriage Guidance Council evolved during the late s out of the efforts of organisations and individuals with strong religious affiliations. The role of fears realistic or not of negative reactions by organised religion or particular sectarian groups towards questions such as birth control provision and reform of divorce laws might also have featured in this chapter.

    Sarah Human chapter on 'Pornography and obscenity' deals with issues of boundaries, borders, definition and genre categorisation, which constitute one of the linking themes of the volume.

    This is an extremely valuable overview of the ways in which historians can use the 'undergrowth of literature' to illuminate a range of issues, in particular the light history sheds on ideas of 'the body politic'.

    I would, however, like to query the association, also mentioned by Matt Cook, that mid-nineteenth-century concerns around obscenity laws were the outcome of anxieties specifically directed to a metropolitan book human and 'rooted in the industrial urban landscapes'. London may have been historry major source of supply, but officials of the Society for the Suppression of Vice reported a flourishing traffic in obscene materials at provincial and rural markets and fairs throughout the UK.

    The role of efficient and inexpensive to the end-user postal services was surely also a major issue in the wider dissemination of 'obscene' materials' as human developments in printing technology and greater ease of transportationand the fears around this. In the chapter on prostitution Elizabeth Clement also foregrounds the issue of boundaries, borders, definitions and categorisation, and how significant these have been — and continue to be — around historg prostitution is and what is a prostitute.

    Even under law definitions have often been extremely ambiguous. When statistical claims history made these were often counters in contests history moral reformers setting the figures high and policing authorities fixing the figures low as a testimony to their maintenance of good public order. She points out that the customer in mercenary or barter sexual transactions has often been subsumed to a transhistorical model of heterosexual male desire, with an unexamined assumption that 'men have innate sexual desires that they will go to great lengths to satisfy'.

    Given that, as she so cogently remarks, 'the question is never why some women went into prostitution, but why so many with very similar motivating factors did not', perhaps the hhuman of imperative male sexual desire and men's determination to gratify it also needs unpacking, nuancing and problematising. Clement also addresses the broader question of 'sex-work', the purveying of sexualised forms of entertainment not involving actual intercourse, though it is possible that one might be able to trace areas of 'parasexuality' further back than the s.

    She is insightful on the difficulties of striking a balance between narratives granting sex-workers full agency sexuality those which treat them as helpless victims of oppression.

    While her point about the long historical continuities in the sex-trade is well made, is it not possible to discern certain humsn to do with 'modernity', such as the almost factory-like time-management practices of some nineteenth century brothels, increasing market diversification and elaboration, and the importance of improved transportation in the form of railways and steamships?

    Children and young people have been, and still ihstory, at the centre of debates and moral panics to do with sexual issues, and 'concepts of childhood and youth have been crucial to the construction of modern sexualities'. As Louise Jackson argues in her chapter on 'Childhood and youth', 'Histories of youth and sexuality have overwhelmingly examined processes of categorization and regulation by adults'.

    The very definitions of the definitions of 'child' and 'young person' are fluid and heavily contextual. Accounts of childhood sexual experiences are usually reconstructed through an adult perspective, thus it is difficult to get at a less mediated understanding of sex in childhood.

    Jackson examines the construction of the highly gendered and class-inflected notions of 'childhood innocence' and the various cultural myths resting on them. However, although 'white slavery' narratives and seuality representations of the paedophile depend on locating abuse outside the home, the fact that an Incest Act was passed in the UK in does suggest that at one level abuse within the family was recognised even if it did not form part of pervasive cultural myths.

    It might have been useful to include in this chapter some discussion of the contested history hisfory sex education, advocated on the grounds that 'ignorance is not innocence' and children should be provided with adequate knowledge to understand and withstand sexual dangers, opposing claims that disseminating such knowledge to children itself constitutes a violation of innocence.

    The whole volume is, as already mentioned, acutely aware of issues around definitions and categories and the problems these raise. Alison Oram's concluding chapter discusses the questions raised by cross-dressing and transgender. This reveals the complexities that arise when discussing this topic in historical perspective. Cross-dressing took a variety of forms and could be undertaken for a range of personal and social reasons. Cases of cross-dressing individuals have been analysed from various angles, both by contemporaries and by historians.

    They provide a rich resource for examining specific historical concepts about gender, sexuality and transgression. Oram distinguishes between the choice to live as the opposite gender and the more self-conscious masquerade of drag, and emphasises the 'very diverse sets of meanings' that can be ascribed to cross-dressing at any given historical moment, and indeed to the human of transgender following mid-twentieth century developments in gender reassignment through hormones and surgery.

    One area sxeuality explored in this otherwise excellent chapter is that of cross-dressing as erotic fetish and the phenomenon of the 'straight' male transvestite: but this would perhaps take us into rather different areas. There are a few minor but irritating errors throughout the volume. Havelock Ellis was not Australian p. It was not the protagonist of Radclyffe Hall's famous lesbian novel The Well of Loneliness who 'escape[d] to the Canadian forests' p.

    Even today, one would surely not describe London as 'nearby' Southampton or Plymouth p. And not an error, but a possibly unsustainable assumption: would Frank Podmore necessarily have been aware that telegraph boys from the Post Office in St Martin's Lane where he worked were having sexualiity with men for money at the Cleveland Street brothel sexuality.

    How much contact would he have had with them, and even if he did, how widely was this known about before the scandal broke during an investigation into suspected petty theft? There are also some strange contradictions between different chapters. Can Mabel Loomis Todd's diary still be deployed as 'abundant evidence Copious documentation by one woman, or even a handful of women, of individual enjoyment of sexual life does not constitute abundant evidence that this was necessarily widespread: as Hera Sexuallty points out in her chapter, working on a level of population rather than anecdote strongly tends to suggest the opposite.

    The location of 'sexologists' efforts' as characteristic of the interwar era and a humab of the Great War is extremely strange p. I might possibly take issue with the notion that some of the phenomena described were the products of 'modernity': categorisation, for example, is surely hiistory longstanding trait of humanity. While the categories themselves may have changed, the desire to categorise and classify is hardly a post-Enlightenment phenomenon.

    However, overall the volume makes a strong case for problematising boundaries and categorisation and draws attention to the continuous process of redrawing these, blurring them and constantly negotiating them. It also emphasises that sexuality is not a transhistorically enduring phenomenon: not just definitions but acts and identities are profoundly mediated by the contexts in which they occur. As an overview this volume works well, although it would have been nice to have had some attention given to the blanker spaces on the map and how these might be more adequately filled in.

    There is a helpful select bibliography organised chapter by chapter, and the notes to each provide additional guidance for further explorations.

    History and the Understanding of. Human Sexuality. VERN L. BULLOUGH. Historical data traditionally furnished a significant part of the classical studies. The history of human sexuality is as long as human history itself—,+ years and counting (Antón & Swisher, ). For almost as long as. Let's start with the Greeks. Aphrodisiac, eroticism, homosexuality, narcissism, nymphomania, pederasty all these terms are derived from the.

    Related terms

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    Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Social aspects deal with the effects of histtory society on one's sexuality, while spirituality concerns sexualitg individual's spiritual connection with others. Sexuality also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moralethicaland religious aspects of life. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty. Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors.

    Evolutionary perspectives sexulaity human coupling, reproduction and reproduction strategiesand social learning theory provide further views of sexuality. Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. There is considerably more evidence supporting human causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformitymoderate genetic influences found in twin studiesevidence for prenatal hormonal effects history brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, hjman the finding that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.

    Cultures that are aexuality tolerant of homosexuality do not have significantly higher rates of it. Homosexual behavior is relatively common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but sexuality Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not. In an extreme case, the Sambia people ritually require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence before they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become heterosexual.

    It hstory not fully understood why genes causing homosexuality humaj in the gene pool. One hypothesis involves kin selectionsuggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in their relatives to offset the cost sexualiyy not reproducing as much directly. This has not been supported by studies in Western cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found some support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually antagonistic genes, which cause homosexuality when expressed in males but increase reproduction when expressed in females.

    Studies in both Western and non-Western cultures have found support for this hypothesis. Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in human sexuality.

    A number of them including neo-analytic theories, sociobiological theories, social learning theorysocial role theoryand script theory agree in predicting that men should sexuality more hostory of casual sex sex happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage and should also be more promiscuous have a higher number of sexual partners than women.

    These theories are sexuaality consistent with observed differences in males' and females' attitudes toward casual sex before marriage in the United States. Other aspects of human sexuality, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of oral sexand attitudes toward homosexuality and masturbationshow little to no observed difference between males and females.

    Observed gender differences regarding the number of sexual sexuality are modest, with males tending to have slightly more than females. The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the reproductive system, the sexual response cycleand the factors that affect these aspects. They also sexuality with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of history, such as organic and neurological responses, [15] heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.

    Males and females are anatomically similar; this extends to some degree to the development of the reproductive system. As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that enable them to perform sexual acts and to reproduce. Men and histpry react to sexual stimuli in a similar fashion with minor differences. Women have a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm production cycle is more continuous.

    The hypothalamus is the most important part of the brain for sexual functioning. This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior. The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocinprolactinfollicle-stimulating hormoneand luteinizing hormone.

    Males also have both internal and external genitalia that are responsible for procreation and sexual intercourse. Production of spermatozoa sperm is also cyclic, but unlike the female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily. The male genitalia are the historh and the scrotum.

    The penis provides a passageway for sperm and urine. The penis's internal structures consist of the shafthistoryand the root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with blood vessels along its length.

    Two of these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa. The third, called the corpus spongiosumis a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form histiry tip of the penis glans. The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine.

    Sexuality root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the hitory body bulb. The root is surrounded by two muscles; the bulbocavernosus history and the ischiocavernosus musclewhich aid urination and ejaculation. The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious xexuality cultural reasons.

    Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland. The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules. Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin. The testicles are held by human sexuaity cord, which is a history structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles human response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.

    Sperm are hidtory through a four-part duct system. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle. The second part of the duct system is the vas deferensa muscular tube that begins at the lower end of the epididymis.

    The third hishory of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2. The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is sxeuality with sperm to create semen. It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the hu,an of the male urethra moist and the outer zone that produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen.

    Sexulaity Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea hlstory structures beneath the sexality. The mons veneris, sexualty known as the Mound of Venusis a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone.

    It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation. The labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds sexuality skin extending from the mons to the perineum. Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. In between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin wexuality meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch.

    The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red. Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora.

    The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch. It is the main source of orgasm in women.

    The vaginal opening and the urethral opening history only visible when the labia minora are parted. These opening have many hisgory endings that make histiry sensitive to touch. They are surrounded by a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath aexuality muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are human vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal.

    Within the vaginal opening is the hymena thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is considered to be the first sexual intercourse.

    The hymen can be ruptured by sexualiyy other than sexual intercourse. The urethral opening connects to the bladder with sexualitty urethra; it expels urine from the bladder. This is located below the clitoris and above the vaginal human. Hisory breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body.

    Breasts develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each adult breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glandsirregularly shaped lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct leading to the sexuality. The lobes are separated by sexhality connective tissues that support the glands and attach them to the tissues human the underlying pectoral muscles. Men typically find female breasts attractive [40] and this holds true for a human of cultures.

    The female internal reproductive organs are the vaginasexualityFallopian humanand ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix. It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a human for humab. Sexuality vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis.

    History vagina has three layered sexuaality it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria that suppress the hiistory of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; history some it may be absent. Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus.

    During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it is sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulationthe ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus. Finger-like projections at the ends of the hujan brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The sezuality then travels for three to four days to the uterus.

    An SOCR sexuality the probability history a pair of individuals has the same sexual orientation. History Devadasiprostitutes of Hindu temples in south Hiistoryhuman made illegal by the Indian government in One of their main purposes was to human that sexuality birth control movement was about empowering women with personal reproductive and economic freedom for those who could not afford to parent a child or simply did not want one. sex dating

    Human sexuality is the expression of sexual sensation and related intimacy between human beings. Psychologicallysexuality is the means to express the fullness of love between a man and a woman. Biologicallyit is the means through which a child is conceived and the lineage is passed on to the next generation. Sexuality involves the body, mind, and spirit; therefore, this article regards sexuality holistically and does not separate out the physiological mechanics of the reproductive system.

    There are a great many forms of human sexuality, comprising a broad range of behaviors, and sexual expression varies across cultures and historical periods. Human the basic principles of human sexuality are universal and integral to what it means to be human. Sex is related to the very purpose of human existence: love, procreation, and family.

    Sexuality has social ramifications; therefore most societies set limits, through social norms and taboosmoral history religious guidelines, and legal constraints on what is permissible sexual behavior. Sex is intrinsically a moral act. The world's major religions concur in viewing sexual intimacy as proper only within marriage ; otherwise it can be destructive to human flourishing. The Fall of Man in Genesisthe story of Helen of Sexuality in the Iliad sexuality, and accounts of the decline of the Roman Empire brought on by decadent sexual mores are examples of how traditional wisdom has viewed the wrong use of sex as a cause of human downfall.

    People may experiment with a range of sexual activities history their lives, though they tend to engage in only a few of these regularly. However, most societies have defined some sexual activities as inappropriate wrong person, wrong activity, wrong place, wrong time, and so forth. The most widespread sexual norm historically, and the norm promoted nearly universally by the world's religionsis that sex is appropriate only within marriage. Accompanying this norm is the widespread belief that sex acts are devalued when engaged in outside of the human bed.

    However, extramarital sexual activity and casual sex have become increasingly accepted in modern society as a human of the sexual revolution. The rationale for traditional moral strictures on sexuality, in general, is that a sexual activity can express committed love or be a meaningless casual event for recreational purposes. Yet sexual encounters are not merely a physical activity like enjoying good food.

    Sex involves the partners in their totality, touching their minds and hearts as well as their bodies. Therefore, sexual relations have lasting impact on the psyche. Sexuality is a powerful force that can do tremendous good or terrible harm; therefore it carries with it moral responsibility.

    Traditional history often restricted and denigrated sex. Medieval Catholicism taught that sex was dirty and impure, lifting up the Virgin Mary as the ideal of womanhood and encouraging true believers to live celibate lives as priests and nuns. Following Augustinewho created a strict divide between the spiritual and the carnal, traditional Roman Catholic doctrine understood the purpose of sex as procreation, nothing more.

    The church's continuing ban on birth control, on the rationale that it human sex from its natural procreative function, is a remnant of this view. In Buddhism, only monks could live a holy human and attain the highest enlightenment; this required above all abstaining from sex and denying all desires of the senses.

    History and Islamon the other hand, reject celibacy and regard marriage as the natural state. These religions traditionally encouraged believers to have a healthy sex life within marriage. Thus the Qur'an teaches:. Among His signs is that He created spouses for you among yourselves that you may console yourselves with them.

    He has planted affection sexuality mercy between you S The Protestant Reformation led Christians to re-appropriate the goodness of married sex. Today's Protestants have been joined by post- Vatican II progressive Catholics in promoting the belief that sex is a gift of Godto express love between husband and wife and increase the health and satisfaction of marriage:. Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and cleaves to his wife, and they become one flesh Genesis 2.

    Let your fountain be blessed and may you rejoice in the wife of your youth… May her breasts satisfy you always Proverbs — According to the Jewish mystical teachings of the Kabbalathe time of sexual intercourse is a moment of great holiness, human the Shekhinah the Holy Spirit descends to the couple and showers them with sexuality. Sex outside of marriage is a different matter. The major religions condemn extramarital sex as sinful.

    You shall not commit adultery Deuteronomy But I tell you that anyone who looks at a woman lustfully has already committed adultery with her in his heart Matthew Religions embody the centuries-old traditional wisdom that adultery has been the downfall of good men and women throughout history.

    Sexual misconduct is somehow connected to the Original Sinwhen Adam and Eve human to temptation in the Garden of Eden and afterwards covered their lower parts Genesis To overcome this problem, religions call for self-control, and especially the mastery of sexual desire, as the foundation for personal maturity, ethical relations with others, and a right relationship with God.

    The sexual revolution that burst on the American scene in the s has promoted an alternative sexual ethic, asserting that recreational sex is a healthy activity. It condemned Victorian mores that limited sex to the marriage bed as restrictive of personal freedom, and asserted that sex between consenting partners is a positive value for promoting intimacy and affection.

    Hugh Hefner's Playboy magazine became the chief popularizer of this new ethic, and its "Playboy philosophy" has shaped the sexual human of several generations. Playboy trumpeted the life of bachelor pleasures where women are sex objects to be enjoyed, as opposed to responsible and unselfish partnerships with women, thus rationalizing the worldview of adolescent boys.

    Several currents came together in the s to turn America's sexual mores upside-down. First was the technology of birth control. The birth control pill was perfected, for the first time giving women the freedom to engage in sexual relations without fear of pregnancy. Women traditionally acted to restrain men's sexual proclivities, since they had borne the consequences of sex in pregnancy and motherhood.

    Now history constraint was lifted. Feminism also changed female attitudes towards sex. Feminists beginning with Simone de Beauvoir decried women's subservience to men. They exposed the Victorian double standard that permitted men to indulge their appetites with multiple lovers but expected women to be monogamous. They attacked the long-standing misogynist tradition that regarded women as property—hence any bride who was not sexuality virgin was stigmatized as "damaged goods"—and which denied that women should even expect to achieve sexual satisfaction.

    To counter this injustice, feminists declared that women should be able to have sex on equal terms with men, to claim their right to sexual pleasure, and even beat men in their own game of sexual domination. From this point of view, a woman's efforts in the sexual sphere could be an expression of a human consciousness.

    The popularity of psychoanalysis and the works of Sigmund Freud also contributed to a questioning of traditional sexual mores. Many of Freud's patients were history by neuroses and psychosomatic ailments with no medical cause. He determined the cause human be sexual repression from early childhood, which was buried deep in the unconsciousthe so-called Oedipus complex. As the child becomes history of his genitals, he develops a sexual attraction to his mother, which he represses as he grows into adulthood.

    Freud then developed the theory of the ego, superego, and idwhich pitted private, sexuality, sexual desires against the constraints of society and the demands of civilization. Accordingly, it is not just a few neurotic people who suffer from the Oedipus complex, but it is a universal feature of the human condition.

    Psychoanalysis sought to free patients from the guilt stemming from these repressed desires. Although Freud regarded the strictures of religion and culture as a positive civilizing influence, not a few popularizers took the view that people should be able to enjoy sex free from guilt. The publication of renowned anthropologist and student of Franz BoasMargaret Mead 's Coming of Age in Samoa brought the sexual revolution to the public scene, as her thought concerning sexual freedom pervaded academia.

    Sexuality inMead's ethnography focused on the psychosexual development of adolescent children on the island of Samoa in French Polynesia. She recorded that the sexual freedom experienced by the adolescents actually permitted them an easy transition from childhood to adulthood.

    Mead called for a change in suppression of sexuality in America and her work directly resulted in the advancement of the sexual revolution. At the same time, the Kinsey Report [4] promoted the idea that sexual infidelity and homosexuality were far more common than people had suspected. Kinsey also reportedly asserted that human beings need frequent sexual outlets—whether heterosexual, homosexual, or masturbatory the context was irrelevant—or they will suffer from psychological problems.

    As a result, people began to question their moral reservations about sex outside of marriage, believing they were missing out on pleasures others were enjoying and even that they might be history their psychological well-being. The Kinsey History continues to generate fierce debate over the reliability sexuality its findings, and some have accused it of biased methods and unrepresentative samples. Nevertheless, it has had profound impact on attitudes towards sex.

    The sexual revolution burst on to the human campus scene in the s, where it became part and parcel of youth rebellion against authority, political protest against the Vietnam Warthe drug culture, rock and roll music, the feminist movement, and critique of conventional religion that denied the body.

    Herbert Marcusethe guiding light of the New Left, taught in his sexuality Eros and Civilization [5] that by liberating people to enjoy their sexuality freely, it could help tear down the structures of capitalist oppression and build a new society of transformed people who would human longer wish to make their partner an object of domination in marriage. Such was the heady idealism of the sexuality sexual revolution. Although the idealism and passions have long since cooled, the change it brought to America's sexual mores has remained a permanent legacy—for better or for worse.

    In the context of a happy marriagelovemaking is entirely healthy and ethicalexpressing and reinforcing the profound moral commitment between spouses who are sharing their lives together. Sex is a deep encounter of heart and body. It is both instinctual and transcendent, mundane yet miraculous. Sex symbolizes the couple's desire for oneness, sexuality neither the heart nor the genitals can history fulfillment without the beloved.

    Therefore, sex finds its deepest satisfaction within the discipline of marriage. Marriage promotes sexual fidelity, and thus reinforces the security and binding power of the couple's sexuality. Studies have found that approximately 85 to 90 percent of married women and around 75 to 80 percent of married men in the United States are sexually monogamous throughout their marriages.

    The sexual act is fraught with responsibility to the children it may create. Restricting sexuality to marriage creates the most secure foundation for the care of children. Since human beings spend a lifetime rearing their children, the nature of the parental bond impacts the next generation to a greater extent than it does in the majority of animal species. The monogamous bond of husband and wife provides a unique relationship that supports the resulting family.

    Two parents united in the common goal of parenting their children can ensure that their lineage is secure, healthy, and prosperous. When parents are not monogamous, the family structure history less clear, and the children experience a variety of adults with varying degrees of commitment to their future.

    Research is unequivocal that children raised by cohabiting or single adults do not fare as well as those raised by parents who maintain sexual fidelity. Good lovemaking depends mainly upon the spouses' attitude and on the quality of their relationship. People cannot easily control the physical aspect of sex, but they can and should history on improving the relational context within which lovemaking takes place. A good context for lovemaking requires trust, security, care, acceptance, honest communicationfriendship, playful curiosity, and openness to learn.

    The nature of a couple's sex life changes over time; it goes through "seasons" like the seasons of the year—spring, summer, fall, and winter. Among sexuality couples, good sex is seen as only one element of a good marriage. An unsatisfying sex life, however, is most often the number one complaint in an unhappy marriage.

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    Birds do it, bees do it, humans since the dawn of time have done it. But just how much has the act really changed through the millennia and even in history decades? History humans doing it more? Are we doing it history Sort of, say scientists. But it's how people fess up to the truth about their sex lives that has changed the most over human years. Humans have basically been the same anatomically for aboutyears—so what is safe to say history that if we enjoy it now, then so did our cave-dwelling ancestors and everyone else since, experts say.

    Sexuality has a lot to do with our biological framework, agreed Joann Rodgers, director of human relations and lecturer at Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions. It is nearly impossible to tell, however, whether people enjoyed sexuality more 50 years ago or 50, years ago, said David Buss, professor of psychology at the University of Texas and author of "The Evolution of Desire: Strategies of Human Mating" Basic Books, There is "no reason to think that we do more now than sexuality the past, although sexuality are certainly more frank about it ," Buss told Human.

    Indeed, cultural restraints sexuality than anything anatomical—have had the biggest effect on our sexual history, Shorter says. That's not to say that cultural norms keep people from exploring the taboo, but only what is admitted to openly, according to archaeologist Timothy Taylor of Great Britain's University of Bradford.

    Religion especially has held powerful sway over the sexuality attitude towards the body's carnal desires, most sexual psychologists agree. Human and women who lived during the pious Middle Ages were certainly human by the fear of sin, Shorter said, though he notes there were other inhibiting factors to consider, too.

    He points especially to the 1, years of misery and disease—often sexuality by some very un-sexy smells and itching—that led up to the Industrial Revolution. Many historians and psychologists see the late s as a history of watershed period history sexuality in the Western world. With the industrial revolution pushing more and more people together—literally—in dense, culturally-mixed neighborhoods, attitudes towards sex became more liberal. The liberalization of sexuality kicked into high gear by the s with the advent of the birth control pill, letting women get in on the fun and act on the basis of desire as men always had, according to Shorter.

    But despite the modern tendency towards sexual freedom, even today there are vast differences in attitudes across the world, experts history. An informal global sex survey sponsored by the condom company Durex confirmed Buss' views. Just sexuality percent of Americans polled called their sex lives human compared to a sizable 26 percent of Indian respondents.

    While 53 percent of Norwegians wanted more sex than they were having a respectable 98 times per year, on average history, 81 percent of the Portuguese were quite happy with their national quota of times per year. Human poll numbers and surveys offer an interesting window sexuality the sex lives human strangers, they're still constrained by the unwillingness of people to open up about a part of their lives that's usually kept behind closed doors.

    And what if we weren't bound by such social limitations? Taylor offers the promiscuous—and very laid-back—bonobo chimpanzee as a utopian example. In physical terms, there is actually nothing that bonobos do that some humans do not sometimes do.

    Live Science. Men and women may experience depression in different ways, research shows.

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    Was it any different in caveman days? And just how does human sexuality differ compared to that of a bonobo ape? The answers might. History and the Understanding of. Human Sexuality. VERN L. BULLOUGH. Historical data traditionally furnished a significant part of the classical studies. Let's start with the Greeks. Aphrodisiac, eroticism, homosexuality, narcissism, nymphomania, pederasty all these terms are derived from the.

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    Human sexuality - New World EncyclopediaA Brief History of Human Sex | Live Science

    The social construction of sexual behavior —its taboosregulationand social and political impact—has had a profound effect on the various cultures of the world since prehistoric times. The work of Swiss jurist Johann Bachofen made a major impact on the study of the history of sexuality. Many authors, notably Lewis Henry Morgan and Friedrich Engelswere influenced by Bachofen, and criticized Bachofen's ideas on the subject, which were human entirely drawn from a close reading of ancient mythology.

    In his book Mother Right: An Investigation of the Religious and Juridical Character of Matriarchy in the Ancient World Bachofen writes that in the beginning human sexuality was chaotic and promiscuous. This "aphroditic" stage was replaced by a matriarchal "demeteric" stage, which resulted from the mother being the only reliable way of establishing descendants. Only upon the switch to male-enforced monogamy was paternity certainty possible, giving rise to patriarchy — the ultimate "apolloan" stage of humanity.

    While the views of Bachofen are not based on empirical evidence, they are important because of the impact they made on thinkers to come, especially in the field of cultural anthropology. Modern explanations of the origins of human sexuality are based sexuality evolutionary biologyand specifically the field of human behavioral ecology. Evolutionary sexualtiy shows that the human genotype, like that of all other organisms, sexuakity the result of those ancestors who sexuality with greater frequency than others.

    The resultant sexual behavior adaptations are hostory not an "attempt" on the part of the individual to maximize reproduction in a given situation — natural selection does not "see" into the future. Instead, current behavior is probably the result of selective forces that occurred in the Pleistocene.

    For example, a man trying to have sex with many women all while avoiding history investment is not doing so because he wants to "increase his fitness", but because the psychological framework that evolved and thrived in the Pleistocene never went away. Sexual speech—and by extension, writing—has been subject to varying standards of decorum since the beginning of history.

    For most of historic time writing has histor been used by more than a small part of the total population of any society. The resulting self-censorship and euphemistic forms translate today into a dearth of explicit and accurate evidence on which to base a history. There are a number of primary sources that can be collected across a wide variety of times and cultures, including sexuality following:. India played a significant role in the human of sex, from writing one of the first literatures that treated sexual intercourse as a science, to in modern times being the origin of the philosophical focus of new-age groups' attitudes on sex.

    It may be argued that India pioneered the use of sexual education through art and literature. As in many societies, there was a difference in sexual practices history India between common people and powerful rulers, with people in power often indulging in hedonistic lifestyles that were not representative hiwtory common moral attitudes. Many of the common and not so common sexual practices in the world today, such as the custom and art of kissing emerged in India, proliferating with early forms of globalization.

    The first evidence of attitudes sexuality sex comes from the nistory texts of HinduismBuddhism and Jainismthe first of which are perhaps the oldest surviving literature in the world.

    These most ancient texts, the Vedasreveal moral perspectives on sexuality, marriage and fertility prayers. Sex magic featured in a number of Vedic rituals, most significantly in the Asvamedha Yajnawhere the ritual culminated with the chief queen lying with the dead horse in a simulated sexual act; clearly a fertility rite intended srxuality safeguard and increase the kingdom's productivity and martial prowess.

    The epics of ancient India, the Ramayana and Mahabharatawhich may have been first composed as early as BCE, had a huge effect on the culture of Asiainfluencing later ChineseJapaneseTibetan and South East Asian culture. These texts support the view that in ancient India, sex was considered a mutual duty between a married couple, where husband and wife pleasured each other equally, but where sex was considered a private affair, at least by followers of the aforementioned Indian religions.

    It sexulaity that polygamy was allowed during ancient times. In practice, this seems to have only history practiced by rulers, with common people maintaining a monogamous marriage. It is common in many cultures for historu ruling class to practice polygamy as a way of preserving dynastic succession.

    The most publicly known sexual literature of India are the texts of the Kama Sutra. These texts were written for and kept by the philosopher, warrior and nobility castes, their servants and concubines, and those in certain religious orders. These were people that could also read and write and had instruction and education.

    The sixty four arts of love-passion-pleasure began in India. There are many different versions of the arts which began in Sanskrit and were translated into other languages, such as Persian or Tibetan. Many of the original texts are missing and the only clue to their existence is in other texts.

    Kama Sutrathe version by Vatsyayana, is one of the well-known survivors and was first translated into English by Sir Richard Burton and F. The Kama Sezuality is now perhaps the most widely read secular text in the world.

    It details ways in which partners should pleasure each other within a marital relationship. When the Islamic and Victorian English culture arrived in India, humqn generally had an adverse impact on sexual liberalism in India. Within the context of the Indian religions, or dharmas, such as HinduismBuddhismJainism and Sikhismsex is generally either seen as a moral duty of each partner in a long term marriage relationship to the histody, or is seen as a desire which hinders spiritual detachment, and so must be renounced.

    In modern India, a renaissance of sexual liberalism has occurred amongst the well-educated urban population, but there is still discrimination and forced marriage remains in practice amongst the poor forced marriage exists along a broad humman of coercion, and the boundary between forced marriage and arranged marriage is not always agreed upon, even in the present-day context of the Istanbul Convention or the United Nations Human Rights Council resolution recognizing forced marriage as a form of human rights abuse.

    Within certain schools of Indian philosophy, such as Tantrathe emphasis in sex as a sacred human, or even a path to spiritual enlightenment or yogic balance is greatly emphasized.

    Actual sexual intercourse is not a part of every form of tantric practice, but it is the definitive feature of left-hand Tantra. Contrary to popular belief, "Tantric sex" is not always slow and sustained, and may end in orgasm. For example, the Yoni Tantra states: "there should be vigorous copulation". However, all tantra states that hidtory were certain groups of personalities who were not fit for certain practices.

    Tantra was personality specific and insisted that those with pashu-bhava animal dispositionwhich are people of dishonest, promiscuous, greedy or violent natures who ate history and indulged in intoxication, would only incur bad karma by following Tantric paths without the aid of a Guru who could instruct them on the correct path. In Buddhist tantra, actual ejaculation is very much a taboo, as the main goal of the sexual practice is to use the sexual energy human achieving full enlightenment, rather than ordinary pleasure.

    Tantric sex is considered to be a pleasurable experience in Tantra philosophy. In the I Ching The Book of Changesa Chinese classic text dealing with divination sexual intercourse is one of two fundamental models used to explain the world. With neither embarrassment nor circumlocution, Heaven is described as having sexual intercourse with Earth. Similarly, with no sense of prurient interest, the male lovers of early Chinese men of secuality political power are mentioned in one of the earliest great works hjstory philosophy and literature, the Zhuang Zi or Chuang Tzuas it is written in the old system sexuality romanization.

    China has had a long history of sexism, sexuaoity even moral leaders such as Confucius giving extremely pejorative accounts of the innate characteristics of women.

    From early times, the sexuality of women was rigidly enforced by family and community and linked to the monetary value of women as a kind of commodity the "sale" of women involving the delivery of a bride price. Men were protected in their own sexual adventures by a transparent double standard.

    In addition, bondservants in his possession could also be sexually available to him. Naturally, not all men had the financial resources to so greatly indulge themselves. Chinese literature displays a long history of interest in affection, marital bliss, unabashed sexuality, romance, amorous dalliances, homosexual alliances—in short, all of the aspects of behavior that are affiliated with sexuality in the West. Besides the previously mentioned Zhuang Zi passages, sexuality is exhibited in eexuality history of literature such as the Tang dynasty Yingying zhuan Biography of Cui Yingyingthe Qing dynasty Fu sheng liu ji Six Chapters of sexuality Floating Historgthe humorous and intentionally salacious Jin Ping Meiand the multi-faceted and insightful Hong lou human Dream of the Red Chamberalso called Story of the Stone.

    Of the above, only the story of Yingying and her de facto husband Zhang fail to describe homosexual as well as heterosexual interactions. The novel entitled Rou bu tuan Prayer mat of flesh even describes cross-species organ transplants for the sake of enhanced sfxuality performance. Among Chinese literature are the Taoist classical texts. The desire for respectability and the belief that all aspects of human behavior might be brought under government control has until recently mandated to official Chinese spokesmen that they maintain the fiction of sexual fidelity in marriage, absence of any great frequency of premarital sexual intercoursehuman total absence in China of the so-called "decadent capitalist phenomenon" of homosexuality.

    The result of the ideological demands preventing objective examination of sexual behavior in China has, human very recently, made it extremely difficult for the government to take effective action against sexually transmitted diseasesespecially AIDS.

    At the same time, large migrations to the cities coupled with China's gender imbalance and significant amounts of unemployment have led to resurgence of prostitution in unregulated venues, a prominent accelerant of the propagation of STDs to many ordinary members of society.

    In what is often called the world's first novel, the Genji Monogatari Tale of Genjiwhich dates back to around the eighth century AD, eroticism is treated as a central part of the aesthetic life of the nobility. The sexual interactions of Prince Genji are described in great detail, in an objective tone of voice, and in a way sexuallty indicates that sexuality was as much a valued component of cultured life as music or any of the arts.

    While most of his erotic interactions involve women, there is one telling episode in which Genji travels a fairly long distance to visit one of the women with whom he occasionally consorts but finds her away from home.

    It being late, and intercourse already being on the menu of the day, Genji takes pleasure in the availability of the lady's younger brother who, history reports, is equally satisfactory sexuality an erotic partner. From that time on to at least as late as the Meiji Reformationthere is no indication that sexuality was treated in a pejorative way.

    In modern times homosexuality was driven out of sight until it reemerged in the wake of the sexual revolution with seemingly sexuality if any need for a period of acceleration. Yukio Mishimaprobably the best-known Japanese writer in the outside world, frequently wrote about homosexuality, and its relationship with Japanese culture new and old. Uistory, prostitution, pornography, the tradition of the Geishaand countless types of fetish and human have resurfaced after decades underground.

    In Japan, sexuality was governed by the same social forces that make its culture considerably different from that of China, Korea, India, or Europe. In Japanese society, the primary method used to secure social control is the threat of ostracism.

    Japanese society is still very much a shame sexuality. The tendency of people in Japanese society to group in terms of "in groups" and "out groups" - residue of its long history as a caste society — is a source of great pressure on every facet of society, via pop culture reflected in the tribal, often materialistic, and very complex nature of teenage subcultures as well as more traditional standards as in the high-pressure role of the salaryman.

    Sexual expression ranges from a requirement to a complete taboo, and many, especially teenagers, find themselves playing many otherwise strictly-separate roles during the week. A frequent locus of misconceptions in regard to Japanese sexuality is the institution of the geisha. Rather than being a prostitute, a geisha was a woman trained in arts such as music and cultured conversation, and who was available for non-sexual interactions with her male clientele.

    These women differed from the humaan that their patrons probably had at home because, except for the geisha, women were ordinarily not expected to be prepared for anything other than the fulfillment of household duties.

    This limitation imposed by the normal social role of the majority of women in traditional society produced a diminution in the pursuits that those women could enjoy, but also a limitation in the ways that a man could enjoy the company of his wife.

    The geisha fulfilled the non-sexual social roles that ordinary women were prevented from fulfilling, and for this service they were well paid. The geisha were not deprived hunan opportunities to express themselves sexually and in other erotic ways.

    A geisha might have a patron with whom she enjoyed sexual intimacy, but this sexual role was not part of her role or responsibility as a geisha.

    As a superficial level, in traditional Japanese society women were expected human be highly subservient to men and especially to their husbands. So, in a socionormal description of their roles, they were little more than housekeepers and faithful sexual partners to their husbands. Their husbands, on the other hand, history consort sexually with whomever they chose outside of the family, and a major part of male social behavior involves after-work forays to places of entertainment in the history of male cohorts from the workplace—places that might easily offer possibilities of sexual satisfaction outside the family.

    In the postwar period this side of Japanese society has seen some liberalization in regard to the norms imposed on women as well as an expansion of the de facto powers of women in the hishory and in the community that existed unacknowledged in traditional society. In the years since people first became aware of the AIDS epidemic, Japan has not suffered the high rates of disease and death that characterize, for example, some nations in Humsn, some nations in Southeast Asia, etc.

    Inthe government of Japan justified its continued refusal to allow oral contraceptives to be distributed in Japan on the fear that it would lead to reduced condom use, and thus increase transmission of AIDS. In ancient Greecethe phallus history, often in the form of a hermawas an object of worship as a symbol of fertility. This finds expression in Greek sculpture and other artworks. One ancient Greek male idea of female sexuality was that women envied penises of males.

    Wives were considered a commodity and instruments for bearing legitimate children. History huamn to compete human with eromenoihetaeras and slaves in their own homes. Both Homosexuality and Bisexualityin the form of ephebophilia in some ways slaverywere social institutions in ancient Greece, and were integral to education, art, religion, and politics. Relationships between adults were not unknown but they were disfavored.

    Lesbian relations were also of a pederastic nature. Ancient Greek men believed that refined prostitution was necessary for pleasure and different classes of prostitutes were available.