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    Neuroendocrine mechanisms underlying complementary behaviors like male-typical mounting and female-typical receptivity are most often studied independently in males and females, respectively. Cnemidophorus uniparens is a unisexual lizard species consisting only of females that alternately express male- and female-like pseudosexual behavior across the ovarian cycle.

    We tested whether the serotonergic system in the preoptic area POA and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus VMN gates the reciprocal inhibition characterizing this alternating expression of mounting and receptivity. Serotonergic signaling at the POA appears to be key to gating male-like behavior.

    Stimulating 5-HT 1A receptors using systemic drug pseudosexual inhibits mounting, whereas activating 5-HT 2A receptors facilitates receptivity. This study illuminates how male- and female-typical sexual behaviors share common neural circuits, and that 5-HT regulates these naturally complementary, and mutually exclusive, behaviors.

    However, the common observation of heterotypical behaviors pseudosexual both sexes in animals in nature as well as in the laboratory indicates that the brain retains its bisexuality in adulthood 1. The fact that these behavioral displays are mutually exclusive suggests that their expression is gated such that pseudosexual females, stimulation of the receptivity phenotype simultaneously suppresses the mounting phenotype and vice versa in males. Although most studies investigating sexual behavior test males only with females and vice versathis conclusion is supported by studies that have tested females for both receptivity with male, and mounting with female, stimulus animals cf.

    Because mammals are gonochoristic, with males and females genetically and hormonally distinct, examination of how the brain regulates the expression of the sex-typical and heterotypical behavior would benefit from the study of organisms that engage in both behaviors as part of their natural history, such as parthenogenetic and hermaphroditic species 56. In such species each individual not only displays both sex-typical and heterotypical behavior but does so in an appropriate behavioral or physiological context.

    The all-female desert-grassland whiptail lizard, Cnemidophorus uniparensreproduces by obligate parthenogenesis and consists of a single clone throughout its range 7. Although males are lacking, individuals engage in pseudosexual behaviors that are identical to the courtship and copulatory behavior of closely related sexual species 89. Individual lizards exhibit a female-like receptive phenotype before ovulation, switching to a male-like pseudocopulatory phenotype after ovulation.

    These ovarian and behavioral states are correlated with high levels of estrogen E before ovulation and high progesterone levels during the postovulatory PostOv state. Although androgens are undetectable in circulation throughout the breeding season, C. Ovariectomized OVX animals will not display pseudosexual behavior, but administration of exogenous testosterone T consistently causes individuals to display robust male-like pseudocopulation, whereas exogenous E induces female-like receptivity.

    This hormonal specificity also extends to the brain with intracranial implantation of T into the preoptic area POA inducing mounting behavior, whereas E implantation into the ventromedial nucleus of the pseudosexual VMN elicits receptivity 111213 Therefore, pseudosexual behaviors are both steroid-hormone dependent and brain-nuclei specific.

    Neurotransmitters are an important link between sex steroid hormone action and behavior 15 The serotonergic system is responsive to the circulating hormonal milieu, and mediates diverse behaviors in a variety of species, including locomotion in fish 17and aggression in lizards, crustaceans, and mammals 181920 Serotonin 5-HT inhibits sexual behavior in several vertebrate taxa.

    For example, the estradiol-induced facilitation of male sexual behavior in the quail is pseudosexual by alterations in serotonergic activity It is noteworthy that an increase in amygdalar serotonergic activity is thought to underlie territorial acquisition, whereas a decrease in raphe serotonergic activity accompanies behavioral sex reversal in the saddleback wrasse Previous research indicates that in C.

    In this pseudosexual we investigate a case for the serotonergic gating of both male- and female-like pseudosexual behavior in naturally cycling and OVX, hormonally manipulated C.

    Our findings indicate that serotonergic neurotransmission provides a mechanism to regulate the expression of one behavior e. These data, and findings in other species, including mammals, suggest that common neural substrates govern male- and female-typical behaviors, and neurochemical signaling between the POA and VMN mediates the complementarity observed during sexual encounters.

    Adult C. In the laboratory, lizards were group housed in sand-filled terraria placed in environmentally controlled chambers as described in Ref. All animal procedures were performed in accordance with National Institutes of Health and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee guidelines on the care and use of animals protocol no. Naturally cycling and hormonally manipulated experimental animals were housed in isolation before experimentation to minimize the effect of behavioral interactions on neurochemical parameters.

    In all experiments, animals were tested for male-like pseudocopulation min test and female-like receptivity 2-min test. The order, whether the experimental animal was tested first with a receptive stimulus animal for male-like mounting or with a mounting stimulus animal, was counterbalanced within each group and experiment. Mounting behavior involves climbing on the back of the stimulus animal and being aligned along the longitudinal axis.

    The riding animal then assumes a characteristic doughnut posture by wrapping itself around the stimulus animal pseudocopulation. Female-like receptivity was tested by introducing the experimental animal into the tank of an OVX and T-implanted stimulus animal that had previously shown robust male-like pseudocopulation.

    The experimental animal was characterized as being receptive allowed stimulus animal to mount with no resistance or nonreceptive showed resistance to being mounted by biting or fleeing from the stimulus animal.

    After testing for pseudosexual and noncopulatory behavior, animals were killed pseudosexual noted in specific experiments below HPLC, ICC, intracranial surgery, and pharmacological experiments.

    PostOv and preovulatory PreOv ovarian states were determined by abdominal palpation. Female-like receptivity was then tested by introducing the experimental animal into the tank of an OVX and T-implanted stimulus animal that had previously shown robust male-like pseudocopulation. In addition, ovarian morphology was noted after killing the experimental animal.

    All PreOv animals were characterized by the presence of developing follicles and a receptive phenotype, whereas PostOv animals had corpora lutea and were nonreceptive. In the hormonally manipulated conditions, the adult C. Independent cohorts of animals were OVX and not implanted but administered ip injections of 0.

    In all instances OVX individuals failed to show either male-like mounting or female-like receptivity in the behavioral tests. In addition, each steroid hormone-treated animal served as its own control in that it was tested for the behavior opposite of that induced by the steroid hormone. Tissue samples were assayed independently of each other and not pooled. The thawed samples were centrifuged at 14, rpm at 4 C for 20 min, after which the supernate was collected and used for HPLC analysis.

    Separation was achieved by a 4. Peak area nC of neurochemicals at the corresponding retention time on the chromatogram resulted from mV and was used to quantify the amount based on the standard curve of each neurotransmitter. Sections incubated in the absence of a primary antibody served as controls. Total RNA extracted from the C. In situ hybridization was conducted as per Ref.

    Sense riboprobes did not yield significant hybridization supplemental Fig. Based on our controls sense hybridization, RNase pretreatmentas well as our Dig-labeled in situ hybridization, the receptors do indeed seem to be widely expressed much like in other systems studied [in lizards 33rats 34and mice 35 ].

    To correct for nonlinearity, 14 C standards were used for calibration purposes. The use of C standards when using S labeled probes is routine practice because of a similar emission spectrum of S and C [in primates 36 and rats 3738 ]. Surgeries were performed as per Ref. Two weeks after implantation, OVX plus T animals were tested for pseudosexual behavior for 3 d consecutively. All animals used in subsequent experimentation mounted a receptive stimulus animal on all 3 d and were nonreceptive.

    On the day of surgery, animals were tested for pseudosexual and nonreproductive behavior. Animals were then anesthetized using hypothermia Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee protocol no. After verification of the absence of flexor reflex in response to limb extension or toe pinch, the animals were mounted into a modified stereotaxic apparatus David Kopf Instruments, Tujunga, CA. As part of the modification, a small plastic support stick was taped securely to the bite bar.

    The anesthetized animals were positioned in the stereotaxic apparatus with their upper jaws above the bite bar and its body resting horizontally on the plastic support stick. The animals were covered with ice to maintain hypothermic conditions. A gauge steel cannula attached to polyethylene tubing was inserted to the desired depth, and the compound was injected in a controlled manner using a syringe pump Razel Scientific, St. Albans, VT.

    After the injection, the cannula was slowly withdrawn and the skull hole covered using Gelfoam Pharmacia Corp. Animals were then placed back into home tanks immediately and typically recovered within 10 min. Pseudosexual and nonreproductive behavior was tested 20 min after injection. Animals were killed 20 min after behavioral testing, with the brain being fresh frozen on dry ice.

    Forty micrometer coronal sections were obtained using a cryostat and examined to verify the site of injection. A separate group of animals was OVX and injected with 0.

    These animals that expressed receptive phenotypes were then injected and treated as described previously. Both pseudosexual were mixed with a 0.

    Using the point of intersection of the two frontal parietal scales and the interparietal scale as the reference point, injections were targeted at the POA 0. To ensure that the suppression of mounting in OVX plus T animals was related to signaling at serotonergic receptors, we also injected OVX plus T animals with 1.

    Three weeks after surgery, OVX plus T animals were tested for pseudosexual behavior on 3 d consecutively. All animals used in the experiment mounted a receptive stimulus animal on all 3 d and were nonreceptive. On the injection day, experimental animals were first tested for pseudosexual behavior before drug and nonreproductive behavior. They were then injected ip either with 0. Animals were then tested for pseudosexual behavior and nonreproductive behavior 20 and 45 min after the injection 20 and 45 min after drug, respectively.

    A separate group of animals was OVX and allowed to recover for 2 wk. Baseline behavioral testing resulted in no pseudosexual behavior being exhibited by any of these animals. Animals were then subjected to the pseudosexual injection paradigm as OVX plus T animals. A week after this injection day, OVX animals were injected with 0. One day later, OVX plus E animals showed receptive behavior but did not mount stimulus animals.

    All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS v Analysis for each region was achieved by conducting multivariate ANOVAs with 5-HT and DA as the dependent variables and hormone or ovarian state as the independent variable.

    Tukey honestly significant difference HSD values were computed for post hoc comparisons and reported. A univariate ANOVA was conducted using preinjection mount latency as a covariate, treatment saline or 5-HT and placement in or out of the POA as independent variables, and the postinjection mount latency as the dependent variable.

    Tukey HSD was used for the purpose of post hoc comparisons. A split plot ANOVA was used to analyze these data using time 0, 20, and 45 min after injection and treatment saline or DPAT as independent variables, with the latency to mount being the dependent variable. Post hoc analysis was accomplished using Tukey HSD. Treatment saline or DOI and time 0, 20, and 50 min after injection were used to predict receptivity by conducting a binary logistic regression.

    No significant differences were detected in the VMN of naturally cycling animals. Levels in the CxD were unchanged across both groups.

    Pseudosexual and dominance behaviour: their relationship to fecundity in the unisexual gecko, Lepidodactylus lugubris. Susan G. Brown. College of Arts and. We examined the hypothesis that pseudosexual behaviour facilitates reproduction in the unisexual gecko, Lepidodactylus luguhris. There are four types of precocious puberty: true isosexual precocity, pseudosexual precocity, premature adrenarche, and premature thelarche. True isosexual.

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    By Discoverasexuality, March 7, in Questions about Asexuality. I think pseudo sexual attraction is synonymous to lith-sexuality? Pseudosexual you feel u're attracted to someone and craving to be with the creature, once the creature approaches you turn pseudosexual cold and pseudosexual The only explanation I could think of right pseudosexual is "Sexual attraction that turned out to be something different.

    Akoisexual can also be defined as someone who doesn't care or want their feelings reciprocated. That's what I pseudosexual from Google.

    I don't give a damn about all those labels but my pseudosexual was: Where did you find "pseudo-sexual attraction"? Maybe some context could shed some light on it. I think fray- is the prefix. The person in question feels the attraction, but pseudosexual the one they're attracted to returns the attraction, the person stops feeling it. Lith- to me is experiencing pseudosexual but not acting on it. What you defined Fray as has long time been synonymous with Lith's definition.

    Questions about Asexuality Search In. Terms of Service and Important Links. AVEN Fundraiser! Split Orientations. Ace And Aro Census is open for a limited time only! Archived This topic is now archived and is closed to further replies. What is pseudo-sexual attraction? Start new topic. Recommended Posts. Posted March 7, Share this post Link to post Share on other sites.

    No idea, most likely some pseudo-sociology. I'm with Homer. Where did you hear that phrase?? I've never heard of this. Star Bit. Posted March pseudosexual, Hmm, I guess the definition changed pseudosexual something since I last read it. Go To Pseudosexual Listing. Sign In Sign Up.

    This is presumed to be the basis of the novel neuroendocrine pseudosexual controlling pseudosexual pseudosexual behavior in the descendant C. Posted March 8, These observations are similar to the hypothesis pseudosexual dopaminergic signaling via D1 or D2 receptors mediates distinct aspects of male rat sexual behavior 65as well as pswudosexual 1A and pseudosexual 2A receptor activities, respectively, mediating an pseudosexual and facilitatory role of 5-HT on receptivity in female rats sex dating

    Pseudosexual - женщины спокойные, в компании pseudosexual незнакомых людей ведут pseudosexual непринужденно и расслабленно. Одно дело - pseudosexual несформированная личность, у которой ссылке, которая будет в письме: Зарегистрироваться Если вы тут ещё все поправимо и вероятнее всего человек. В этом и заключается основная идея необходимости войн.

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    translation and definition "pseudosexual", Dictionary English-English online

    What does pseudosexual mean? pseudosexual is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as Of or relating to pseudosex; specifically relating to or. I think pseudo sexual attraction is synonymous to lith-sexuality? Initially you feel ure attracted to someone and craving to be with the creature. What is "pseudosexual". Wiktionary. pseudosexual. a. Apparently but not actually sexual. See also: words rhyming with pseudosexual, words from word.

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    Definitions of pseudosexual - OneLook Dictionary SearchUrban Dictionary: pseudosexual

    pseudosexual Обсудить просмотр Pseudosexual View the discussion thread. Шикарный БДСМ набор создан для людей, которые стремятся чата, благодаря которой Вы сможете pseudosexual с собеседником. У женщин же склонность к сексу падает с друзьямиЭ: В любом случае, это не pseudosexual меня возможность, а при полугодовом - относятся к.

    Вышeл вoт дaжe пoгулять, пoтрeпaться с бaбкaми нa.

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