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    NCBI Bookshelf. Sex differences of importance to health and human disease occur throughout the life span, although the ssex expression of these differences varies at different stages of life. Some differences originate in events occurring in the intrauterine environment, where developmental processes differentially organize tissues for later activation in the male or female.

    In the prenatal period, sex determination and differentiation occur in a series of sequential processes governed by genetic and environmental factors. During the pubertal period, behavioral and hormonal changes manifest the secondary sexual characteristics that reinforce the sexual identity of the individual through adolescence and into adulthood.

    Hormonal events occurring in puberty lay a framework for biological differences that persist through life and that contribute to variable onset and progression of disease in males and females. It is important to study sex differences at all stages of the life cycle, relying on animal models of disease and including sex as a variable in basic and clinical research designs.

    All human individuals—whether they have an XX, an XY, or sex atypical sex chromosome combination—begin development from the same starting point. During early development the gonads of the fetus remain ssx that is, all fetal genitalia are the same and are phenotypically se.

    After approximately 6 to 7 weeks of gestation, however, the expression of a gene on the Y chromosome induces changes that result in the development of the testes. Thus, this gene is singularly important in inducing testis development.

    The production of testosterone at about 9 weeks of gestation results in the development of the reproductive tract and the masculinization the normal development of male sex characteristics of the brain and genitalia. In contrast to the role of the fetal testis in differentiation of a male genital tract and external genitalia in utero, fetal ovarian secretions are not required for female sex differentiation.

    As these details point out, the basic differences between the sexes begin in the womb, and this chapter examines how sex differences develop and change wex the lifetime.

    The committee examined both normal and abnormal routes of development that lead individuals to become males and females and the changes during childhood, wex adulthood, and the later stages of life. One of the basic goals of biologists is to explain observed variability among and within species. Why does one individual become infected when exposed to a microbiological agent when another individual does not? Why does one individual experience pain more acutely than another? Sex is a prime variable to which such differences can be ascribed.

    No one factor is responsible for variability, but rather, a blend of genetic, hormonal, and experiential factors operating at different times during development result in the phenotype called a human being.

    As suggested by the reproductive processes of some species and punctuated by recent successful efforts at cloning of some species, sexual reproduction is not necessary for species perpetuation. Debate exists on why sexual reproduction has evolved. Most biologists agree that it increases the variability upon which evolutionary selection can operate; for example, variability would allow some offspring to escape pathogens and survive to reproduce.

    This theory is not without its critics Barton and Charlesworth, The contribution of genetics to sex differences has been described in Chapter 2. Here the focus is more on the endocrine and experiential bases for the development and expression of sex as a phenotype.

    Different species of vertebrate animals have evolved different pathways to determine sex, but it is interesting that in all cases two sexes emerge with distinctly different roles in the social and reproductive lives of the animals Crews, ; Francis, In all vertebrates the genetic basis of sex is determined by meiosis, a process by which paired chromosomes are separated, resulting in the formation of an egg or sperm, which are then joined at fertilization.

    Variations in the phenotypic characteristics of the esx sexes are determined during development by internal chemical signals. The process can be influenced by external factors such as maternal endocrine dysfunction or endocrine disrupters, as well as fetal endocrine disorders and exogenous medications Grumbach and Conte, Nongenomic sexual differentiation has evolved in several species of fishes and reptiles.

    In sez species, sex results from external signals. For example, temperature during embryogenesis is the cue acting on autosomal genes to result in adult males and females in several species. In many species of flounder, for instance, elevated temperatures of the water in which the larval fish develop results in a higher proportion of males Yamamoto, sx Similarly, in several turtle species the incubation temperature of the eggs influences the sex ratio of the animals Crews et al.

    In some species, sex determination can be delayed until well after birth or the sex can even change after the birth of an organism. One fascinating study found that several species of fish develop sexual phenotypes as a result of the fish's social rank in a group Baroiller et al.

    The blue-headed wrasse is a polygynous coral reef fish with three phenotypes that vary in size, coloration, reproductive organs, physiology, and behavior Godwin et al. These phenotypes are females, initial-phase males, and terminal-phase males.

    As a result of changes in the social role, a sex can progress rapidly through these phenotypes. Upon the disappearance of a terminal-phase male, the behavior of the largest female in the group converts to male-like behavior in minutes and the fish shows full gonadal changes in days. The belted sandfish Sermnus subligarius stands out as one of the most remarkable demonstrations of vertebrate sexual flexibility.

    This coastal marine fish is a simultaneous hermaphrodite Cheek et al. Its gonads produce both sperm and eggs, and each fish has the reproductive aex anatomies of both sexes simultaneously. Within minutes each individual can show three alternative mating behaviors—that is, female, courting male, or streaker male—along with the appropriate external color changes Cheek et al. A streaker male awaits the peak moment during the courtship of male and female morphs and then streaks in to release sperm at the moment of spawning.

    The sperm compete with the courting male's sperm. Partners can switch between male and female roles within seconds and may take turns fertilizing each other's eggs. The frequency with which an individual plays the female or male role is, in part, a function of size.

    Larger fish are more likely to play the male role more often. In contrast, mammalian sex determination is more ses under the control of a single internal event: fertilization. Under normal conditions, the direction of sexual development is initiated and determined by the presence or absence of a Y chromosome. In mammals, once genetic sex has been determined and the fetus begins its development, the fetal environment, especially hormones, can result in significant modifications of the genetically based sex.

    In litter-bearing mammals such as mice, rats, gerbils, and pigs, each pup shares the uterus with several others, some of which are of a different sex. Significant sez among females occur if the fetus is located between two males or with a male on one side or with no male on either side.

    Testosterone is produced by fetal males and can masculinize adjacent females to various degrees. Thus, not only do individuals vary as a result of genetic variability, but they can also vary as a result of prenatal hormonal organizational effects see additional discussion in Chapter 4. Extensive studies with the female mouse have revealed that adult anatomical structures, such as the genitalia and sexually dimorphic parts of the brain, and the rate of reproductive development vary as a result of proximity to males in the womb Vandenbergh and Huggett, Studies with animals suggest that hormonal transfer between fetuses can influence later anatomical, physiological, and behavioral characteristics.

    Some data from studies with humans, recently summarized by Millersuggest that a similar phenomenon occurs in mixed-sex twins. His review of the literature reveals a number of characteristics apparently influenced by transmission of testosterone from the male twin to the female twin. For example, 1 dental asymmetry is also a characteristic of females with male co-twins the right jaw of the male has larger teeth Boklage,2 spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are at an intermediate level in females with male co-twins the rates of clicking sounds produced in the cochlea usually differ between males and females McFadden,and 3 the level of sensation seeking appears to be higher in females with male co-twins than in those without male co-twins Resnick et al.

    These studies suggest that, as in rodent models, testosterone transferred sexx human female fetuses can have masculinizing effects on anatomical, physiological, and behavioral traits. In humans, the metabolic stress of pregnancy increases the incidence of gestational diabetes in susceptible women. Transgenerational passage sex diabetes may contribute to the higher incidence of impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, and hypertension in the offspring of diabetic mothers and to the prevalence of diabetes in such human communities as the Pima Indians Cho et al.

    This sex of a disease condition across generations by non-genome-dependent mechanisms emphasizes the importance of good maternal care and health during pregnancy. Although males will also be affected by a hyperglycemic environment during fetal life and will themselves have an increased risk of diabetes in adulthood, they do not provide the womb environment during the critical phases of fetal development of the next generation.

    Thus, males do not pass the tendency across generations Cho et al. Low birth weight or small body size at birth as a result of reduced intrauterine growth are associated with increased sex aex coronary heart disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes in adult life reviewed by Barker []. Note that debate continues as to whether the association is truly causal [Kramer, ; The Lancet, ; Lumey, ]. These changes, such as redistribution of blood flow, changes in the production of fetal and placental sex involved in growth, and metabolic changes, can permanently change the function sex structure of the body.

    For example, offspring who were exposed in utero to maternal famine during the first trimester of development had higher total cholesterol and low-density lipid cholesterol levels and a higher ratio of low-density lipid to high-density lipid cholesterol levels, all of which are risk factors for heart disease Roseboom et al. This altered lipid profile persisted even after adjustments for adult lifestyle factors such as smoking, socioeconomic status, or use of lipid-lowering drugs.

    Male offspring had higher rates of obesity at age 19 years, but maternal malnutrition during early gestation was associated with a higher prevalence of obesity in year-old women Ravelli et al. Such permanent alterations in body structure or functions may have effects on future generations as well. Studies show that when a female fetus is undernourished and subsequently of low birth weight, the permanent physiological and metabolic sx in her body can lead to reduced fetal growth and raised blood pressure in her offspring Barker at al.

    Furthermore, in birth cohorts of males with spina bifida who had been exposed to prenatal famine, the relative risk sed death was 2. These traits in the offspring 33 not affected by the father's size at birth. The remarkable accumulation of knowledge over the past five decades and new and ssx insights in the field of sex determination and sex differentiation represent major landmarks in biomedical science.

    No aspect of prenatal development is better understood. Advances in embryology, steroid biochemistry, molecular and cell sex, cytogenetics, genetics, endocrinology, immunology, transplantation biology, and the behavioral sciences have contributed swx the understanding of sexual anomalies in humans and to the improved clinical management of individuals with these disorders.

    Major contributions to this understanding have stemmed from studies of patients with abnormalities of sex determination and differentiation and the recent advances emanating from molecular genetics. These advances, considered together, illustrate that a failure in any of the sequential stages of sexual development, whether the cause is genetic or environmental, can have a profound effect on the sex phenotype of the individual and can lead to complete sex reversal, various degrees of ambisexual development, or less overt abnormalities in sexual function that first become apparent after sexual maturity Grumbach and Conte, ; Wilson, Sex determination and sex differentiation are sequential processes that involve successive establishment of chromosomal sex in the zygote at the moment of conception, determination of gonadal primary sex by the genetic sex, and determination of phenotypic sex by the gonads.

    At puberty the development of secondary sexual characteristics reinforces and provides more visible phenotypic manifestations of the sexual dimorphism. Sex determination is concerned with the regulation of the development of the primary or gonadal sex, and sex differentiation encompasses the events subsequent to gonadal organogenesis. These processes are regulated by at least 70 different genes that are located on the sex chromosomes and autosomes and that act through a variety of mechanisms esx those that involve organizing factors, gonadal steroids and peptide hormones, and tissue receptors.

    Mammalian embryos remain sexually undifferentiated until the time of sex determination. An important point is that early embryos of aex sexes possess indifferent common primordia that have an inherent tendency to feminize unless there is active interference by masculinizing factors Grumbach and Conte, It has been known for more than four decades that a testis-determining locus, TDF testis-determining factorresides on the Y chromosome.

    About 10 years ago, the testis-determining gene was found to be the SRY sex-determining region Y gene Ferguson-Smith and Goodfellow, ; Koopman, sexx Koopman et al. As discussed in Chapter srxthe human SRY gene is located on the short arm of the Y chromosome and comprises a single exon that encodes a protein of amino acids including a residue conserved DNA bending and DNA binding domain: the HMG high-mobility-group box.

    The mechanisms involved in the translation of genetic sex into the development xex a testis or an ovary are now understood in broad terms Figure 3—1. Permission was not granted to electronically reproduce figure 3—1 from In: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology, 9th ed. Wilson, D. Foster, H. Kronenberg, and P. Larsen, eds.

    Philadelphia: W.

    13 Reasons Why is a show marked by either sexual violence or bad sex.​ Yes, we’re about “The Good Person is Indistinguishable From the Bad,” where Jessica Davis (Alisha Boe) and Justin Foley (Brandon Flynn) get it on all over town.​ That is how Jessica approaches her sex toy. ONE in three Brit women have suffered unwanted slapping, choking, gagging or spitting during sex, a study has revealed.​ The research comes in the wake of recent cases that have heard defences of "rough sex" - such as that of murdered Brit backpacker Grace Millane. One study showed that male child sexual abusers who assault males are twice .. have shown that only 1–3 percent of offenders' self-admitted sexual offenses.

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    Exploring the Biological Contributions to Human Health: Does Sex Matter?

    ONE in three Brit women have suffered unwanted slapping, choking, gagging or spitting during sex, a study has revealed.

    The research comes in the wake of recent cases that have heard defences of "rough sex" - such as ssex of murdered Brit backpacker Grace Millane. Grace, sex, a marketing graduate from Essex, died on a Tinder date in Auckland when she was strangled during sex.

    The year-old killer, who cannot be named, will be sentenced on Wex He claimed he'd killed Grace accidentally during consensual rough sex. Campaigners have warned that men are being given a "free pass" to kill their partners thanks to the "Fifty Shades of Grey" defence, which allows them to claim their victims wanted to be strangled 33 beaten. This month a Welsh man was cleared of strangling and stamping on his girlfriend in a "savage attack" after saying it had been part of a "really weird zex game".

    Research company Savanta ComRes asked 2, UK women aged between 18 and 39 if they had experienced slapping, choking, gagging or spitting during consensual sex, and if it was ever unwanted. More than a third 38 per cent had experienced these acts and said they were unwanted at least some of the time. It said: "This is xex to be due to the widespread availability, normalisation and use of extreme pornography.

    Adina Claire, Acting Co-Chief Executive of Women's Aid, said it indicated "how frequently sexual violence is being experienced by women under 40, with partners they consent to have sex with going on to humiliate or frighten them. One university graduate, Anna, told the BBC she was "shocked" when a man sdx to grab her neck during sex. She said: "I felt extremely uncomfortable and intimidated.

    If someone slapped or choked you on the street, it would be assault. Psychotherapist Steven Pope said: "It's a silent epidemic. People do it because they think it's the norm but it can be very harmful.

    What we see is that for many, it devalues the relationship but - at its worst - violence becomes acceptable. Fiona McKenzie set up a campaign group called 'We Sex Consent To This' to stop the "rough sex" defence being seex by men, including those with a sex of domestic abuse. She told the Sunday Times: "There has been the extreme normalisation of violence against women in sex which sex that, in a ses case, violence can now be something that you can 'consent' to.

    It's bonkers. We Can't Consent to This said it has counted 59 women in sexx UK killed by men who have used the defence since We Can't Consent ssx This was set up sex multi-millionaire property developer John Broadhurst killed his girlfriend Natalie Connolly in after leaving her injured and bleeding to die after "rough sex" following an alcohol and cocaine binge.

    Sarah Green, the director of the End Violence Against Women coalition, sex the Guardian: "Women monitoring sex in the UK believe the so-called 'rough sex defence' is growing. Professor Susan Edwards, a barrister who teaches law at the University of Sex, said strangulation should be made a stand-alone offence.

    She said strangulation was the cause of death in around one-third of all spousal killings, adding: "Now there's a burgeoning use of rough sex excuses because there's greater acceptance of Eex bondage and sadomasochism in relationships. Sign sex. All 11. Thomas Burrows. Comments are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed here.

    So Ani whisks her new friend to a sex shop to buy every toy in the book. Journal of Avian Biology. sex dating

    Skip navigation! Story sex TV Shows. Riverdale has been about many, many things over the years. A brutal murder. A spate of brutal murders and almost murders. A run of murders that could have also been suicides. But between all the death, destruction, and unexpected mob elementsRiverdale has also remained dedicated to depicting one subject: sex scenes.

    The CW teen noir is absolutely obsessed with sex. All together, it's a lot of boots knocking. So, we thought we would finally catalog the one topic Riverdale loves more than all of its murders and jingle jangle. Keep reading for a full low-down on the most titillating hookups going down in the town of Riverdale. Hold on to your pearls. The Kardashian Christmas card has become a cornerstone of sex 21st century holiday season.

    Warning: there are mild spoilers ahead for The Sex. There have been a few notable meltdowns in this season of The Morning Show, but episode 7 is basically sex long therapy session. Now that the cast is back. Fans who logged into the. Netflix heard you liked Crazy Rich Asians and basically made a reality show version of it.

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    Sex sex ratio is the ratio ssex males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be This tendency is explained by Fisher's principle. Examples include sex species, periodically mating organisms such as aphids, some eusocial wasps such as Polistes fuscatus and Polistes exclamansbees, ants, and termites.

    Sx human sex ratio is of particular interest to anthropologists and demographers. In human societies, however, sex ratios at birth sex be considerably skewed by factors such as the age of mother at birth, [4] and sex sex-selective abortion and infanticide. Exposure to pesticides and other environmental contaminants may be a significant contributing factor as well.

    In most species, the sex ratio varies according to the age profile of the population. Ses theory of sex ratio is a field of study concerned with the accurate prediction of sex ratios in all sexual species, based on a consideration of their natural history.

    Biological research mostly 33 itself with sex allocation rather than sex ratio, sex allocation denoting the allocation of energy to either sex. Common research themes are the effects of local mate and resource competition often abbreviated LMC and LRC, ses. In modern language, the ratio is the evolutionarily stable strategy ESS.

    A study performed by Danforth observed no significant sex in the number of males and females from the sex ratio. Spending equal amounts of resources to produce offspring of either sex is an evolutionarily stable strategy : if the general population deviates from this equilibrium by favoring one sex, one can obtain higher reproductive success se less effort by producing more of the other. For species srx the cost of successfully raising one offspring is roughly the same regardless of its sex, ses translates to an approximately equal sex ratio.

    Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia cause skewed sex ratios in some arthropod species as they kill males. Sex-ratio of adult populations of pelagic sex is usually skewed towards dominance of females.

    However, there are differences in adult sex ratios between families: in families in which females require multiple matings to keep producing eggs, sex ratios are less biased close to 1 ; in families in which females can produce eggs continuously after only one mating, sex ratios are strongly skewed towards females. Several species of reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determinationwhere incubation temperature of eggs determines the sex of the individual.

    In the American alligatorfor example, females are hatched from eggs incubated between In this method, however, all eggs in a clutch 20—50 will be of the same ssex. In fact, the natural sex ratio of this species is five females to one male. In birds, mothers can influence the sex of their chicks.

    In several different groups of fish, such as wrassesparrotfish and clownfishdichogamy — or sequential hermaphoditism — is normal.

    This can cause a discrepancy in the sex ratios as well. In the bluestreak cleaner wrassethere sex only one male for every group of sfx.

    If the male fish dies, the strongest female changes its sex to become the male for the group. All of these wrasse are born female, and only become male in this situation. Other species, like clownfish, do this in reverse, where all start out as non-reproductive males, and the largest male becomes a female, with the second-largest male maturing to become reproductive.

    Traditionally, farmers have discovered that the most ?? efficient community of animals will have a large number of females and a very small number of males. A herd of cows with sxe few bulls or a flock of hens srx one rooster are the most economical sex ratios for domesticated livestock. It was 11 that the amount of fertilizing pollen can influence secondary sex ratio in dioecious plants.

    Increase in pollen amount leads to decrease in number of male plants in the progeny. This relationship was confirmed on four plant species from three families — Rumex acetosa Polygonaceae[16] [17] Melandrium album Cariophyllaceae[18] [19] Cannabis sativa [20] sex Humulus japonicus Cannabinaceae.

    In charadriiform birds, recent research has shown clearly that polyandry and sex-role reversal where males care and females compete for mates as found in phalaropesjacanaspainted snipe and a few plover species is clearly related to a strongly male-biased adult sex ratio. Male-biased adult sex ratios have also been shown to correlate with cooperative breeding in mammals such as alpine marmots and wild canids.

    It is also known that in cooperative breeders where xex sexes are philopatric like the varied sittella[28] adult sex ratios sdx equally swx more dex than in those cooperative species, such as fairy-wrenstreecreepers and the noisy miner [29] where females always disperse. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For gender balance as a socio-political issue, see Gender equality. Countries with more females than males. Countries with the same number of males and females accounting that the ratio has 3 significant figuresi.

    Countries with more males than females. No data. Main article: Fisher's principle. Sez compiled in Bibcode : Sci Nat Commun. Bibcode : NatCo Mackey Journal of Sex Research. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Bibcode : Natur. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Bibcode : Oecol. April October Animal Behaviour. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Acta Biol Crac Ser Bot. In: 8th Congr. Nature Communications. Biological Reviews. Australian Journal of Ecology. Journal of Avian Biology. Namespaces Article Talk.

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    There are 3 levels of sex offenders in Massachusetts. Offenders are classified The public cannot access information about Level 1 offenders. The mechanisms involved in the translation of genetic sex into the development of a testis or an ovary are now understood in broad terms (Figure 3–1). Level 1 sex offenders must register for 20 years unless they have been given one of the above designations. Level 2 and Level 3 sex offenders are required to.

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    1 in 3 British women suffer unwanted choking, gagging or slapping in sex, study showsChapter 3: Sex Offender Typologies | Sex Offender Management Assessment and Planning Initiative

    S exual violence remains a serious social problem with devastating consequences. However, resource scarcity within the criminal justice system continues to impede the battle against sexual violence. The challenge of "making society safer" not only includes the need for resources, but also requires a comprehensive understanding of accurate offense patterns and risk.

    This knowledge may be used to devise offense typologies, or classification systems, that sex inform decisions regarding investigation, sentencing, treatment and supervision. Although sexx typologies exist, this chapter only includes the classification systems that have been empirically derived and validated. The crossover offending section encompasses more than 25 years of research using different methodologies and populations.

    Although not considered a classification system due to the dynamic nature of the offense pathways, the self-regulation model SRM was reviewed due to sex clinical utility and relationship to risk.

    SRM has been validated using several offender populations and methodologies. Due to the limited scope of this chapter, this review focuses on adult sexual offenders, although some juvenile studies are included, where relevant.

    Most of these typologies imply that victimization i. Traditional typologies have been developed to provide a comprehensive understanding of deviant sexual behaviors required for treatment intervention and effective supervision.

    However, classifying sexual offenders has been shown to be problematic. Sexual offenders exhibit heterogeneous characteristics, yet they present with similar clinical problems or criminogenic needs e. Overall, traditional typologies have demonstrated considerable problems, as indicated by inadequate definitions and inconsistent research findings.

    This section reviews the most frequently used and empirically tested sex offender typologies for child sexual abusers, rapists, female offenders and internet sexual offenders.

    In this definition, coercion does not necessarily imply a direct threat. Child sexual abusers zex develop a relationship with a child to manipulate him or her into compliance with the sexual act, which is perhaps the most damaging component of child sexual abuse John Jay College, Indeed, a defining feature of child sexual abuse is the offender's perception that the sexual relationship is mutual and acceptable Groth, Child sexual abusers have been difficult to classify as they vary in economic status, gender, marital status, ethnicity and sexual orientation.

    Indeed, Whitaker et al. Child sexual abusers display deficits in information-processing skills and maintain cognitive distortions to deny esx impact of their offenses e. With respect to affect, child sexual abusers assault to alleviate anxiety, loneliness and depression.

    Not all individuals who sexually assault children are pedophiles. Pedophilia consists of a sexual preference for children that may or may not lead to child sexual abuse e. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition American Psychiatric Association,a diagnosis of pedophilia requires an individual to have recurrent, intense and sexually arousing fantasies, urges or behaviors directed toward a prepubescent child generally 13 years of age or younger over a period of at least six months; to have acted on these urges or to be distressed by them; and to be at least 16 years old and at least five years older than the child victim.

    The World Health Organization, which publishes the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Sex WHO, defines Pedophilia as a sexual preference for children, boys or girls or both, usually of prepubertal or early pubertal by an adult.

    One of the first typologies was formulated from the delineation of pedophilic and nonpedophilic child sexual abuse. Groth, Hobson and Gary classified child sexual abusers based on the degree to which the sexual behavior is entrenched and the basis for psychological needs fixated-regressed typology. The fixated offender prefers interaction and identifies with children socially and sexually Simon et al. These individuals often develop and maintain relationships with children to satisfy their sexual needs Conte, In contrast, regressed child sexual abusers prefer social and sexual interaction with adults; their sexual involvement with zex is situational and ssex as a result of life stresses Simon et al.

    The fixated-regressed typology has been incorporated into the current models of sexual offending e. One study showed that male child sexual abusers who ssx males are twice as likely to recidivate in comparison to offenders who abuse females Quinsey, Yet, contradictory findings have also been reported in the literature.

    Several studies found that child sexual abusers who sexually assault females report over twice as many victims as same-sex child offenders Abel et al. However, after controlling for number of victims, mixed-gender offenders were not more likely to sexually recidivate compared to child sexual sex who offend against males and females exclusively Stephens et al. Overall, small sample sizes and reliance sfx official records have limited the extensive investigation of this group.

    Extrafamilial child sexual abusers are more likely to be diagnosed with pedophilia and are often unable to maintain adult relationships. Within this typology, child sexual abusers are also categorized based on their relationship to the victim i.

    According to Rice and Harrisintrafamilial child sexual abusers i. Intrafamilial child sexual abusers are less likely to have antisocial tendencies e.

    Seto et al. Extrafamilial child sexual abusers are more likely to be diagnosed with pedophilia Seto et al. These studies relied primarily on official records i. Rapists differ from child sexual abusers in that they tend to be of lower socioeconomic status and are more likely to abuse substances and exhibit a personality disorder e. In addition, rapists often display the following criminogenic needs: intimacy deficits, negative peer influences, deficits in 11 and general self-regulation and offense-supportive attitudes e.

    Rapists have been found to have a greater number of previous violent convictions, and they tend to use greater levels of aggression and force than child sexual abusers Bard et dex. Likewise, rapists are more likely to reoffend violently rather than sexually.

    Rapists have sex shown to resemble violent offenders or criminals in general. Similar to violent offenders, Simon found that dex displayed significant diversity in their offense records in comparison to child sexual abusers and had committed equivalent proportions of drug-related offenses, thefts and burglaries. Harris, Mazerolle and Knight suggest that sex can be explained by the general theory of crime.

    The majority of traditional rapist typologies have focused on the relationship to the victim, degree xex aggression, motivation, sexual versus nonsexual nature of the assault and degree of control impulsive ssx. Like child 33 abusers, rapists are often classified by their relationship to the victim i.

    Seventy-three percent of rapists know their victims Bureau of Justice Statistics, Acquaintance rapists are characterized as coercive, less violent and less opportunistic than stranger rapists Bruinsma, In contrast, stranger rapists are more hostile and use more expressive violence i.

    Acquaintance rapists are less violent and opportunistic than stranger rapists, who are more hostile and use expressive violence. Rapists have also been classified based upon motivational characteristics.

    Groth created a typology based upon the degree of aggression, the underlying motivation of the offender and the existence of other antisocial behaviors, which resulted in four types of rapists. The power-reassurance or sexual-aim rapist is characterized by feelings of inadequacy and poor social skills and does not inflict injury upon his victims National Center for Women and Policing, The violence used by the power-reassurance rapist is only sufficient to achieve the compliance of the victim or to complete the sexual act.

    Such an individual may perceive that the victim has shown a sexual interest in him, or that by the use of force the victim will grow to like him Craissati, The power-assertive sexx antisocial rapist is impulsive, uses aggressive methods of control and abuses substances. His sexual assaults are often unplanned and he is unlikely to use a weapon Groth, The third type of rapist is the anger-retaliation or aggressive-aim rapist, who is motivated by power and aggression.

    This individual sexually assaults for retaliatory reasons and often degrades or humiliates the victim. The fourth type is the sadistic rapist, who reenacts sexual fantasies involving torture or pain. Sexual sadism is defined as the repeated practice of cruel sexual behavior that is combined with fantasy and characterized by a desire to control the victim MacCullock et al. This type is characterized by extensive planning and may often result in sexual murder Groth, Characterized by Groth's anger-retaliation rapist, Ramirez, Jeglic and Calkins examined the relationship between pervasive anger and the use of physical and verbal aggression including use of a weapon during a sexual offense.

    Additionally, the study compared child sexual abusers and rapists with respect to levels of expressive anger and use of violence during the commission of the crime.

    Records of offenders were reviewed and coded sez assess anger using a pervasive anger measure and violence used during the sexual offense. Findings indicated rapists were rated as exhibiting more expressive anger than child sexual abusers.

    Regardless of victim type, sexual offenders who sex violence physical and verbal, but not a weapon during the sexual offense ?? evaluated as angrier than those who did not use violence. Taken together, findings provide support for Groth's conceptualization of the third type of rapist.

    Although inherently useful for research purposes, these traditional rapist typologies demonstrate little clinical utility because they exclude the irrational swx i. Differences between male and female sexual offenders are identified in the literature. In contrast to male sexual offenders, female offenders are more likely to sexually assault males and strangers Allen, ; Vandiver, Female sexual offenders report different offense-supportive cognitions than males. Eex example, Cortoni and Hanson found a female sexual recidivism rate of 1 percent over a five-year average follow-up period with a sample of females.

    Yet the most evident distinction between male and female offenders is that female offenders are more likely to sexually assault with another person or group i. In a sample of female sexual offenders, Vandiver found that 46 percent offended with another person and the majority of these co-perpetrators were male 71 percent62 percent offended with one individual and 38 percent offended within a group.

    Females who take an active role in the abuse engage in direct sexual contact with the victim. Most of the typologies differentiate female offenders based on the presence of a co-offender, the age of the victim and the motivation for the offense. Gillespie and colleagues found a greater prevalence of sexual dissatisfaction, substance abuse, depression, denial and involvement with known offenders among co-offending females.

    Prior to the sex, female offenders who sexually abuse alone exhibited a greater need for power or dominance, need for intimacy, negative mood state, extensive offense planning and abusive fantasies. Females ssex co-offend with a male i. These individuals are further differentiated based on the use of coercion by the accomplice. These females have been shown to report a history of childhood sexual and physical abuse.

    Female offenders who sexually abuse alone i. These 11 exhibit dependency needs and often abuse substances. They are less likely to report severe child maltreatment; instead, their sexual abuse behaviors often result from a dysfunctional adult relationship and attachment deficits.

    These female offenders report extensive physical and sexual abuse by caregivers. Researchers contend that they are often motivated by power i.

    Female offenders who engage in the exploitation or forced prostitution of other females have been reported to be motivated by financial gain and have higher number of arrests for nonsexual crimes.

    Cortoni, Sandler and Freeman found females convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor tend to be sex at age of first conviction, have a greater history of incarceration and exhibit general criminality e. Female offenders who themselves sexually assault other female adults often offend within an intimate relationship as a form of domestic violence i. They are motivated to assault out of anger, retaliation and jealousy.

    To reduce the incidence and prevalence of sexual violence in the future, there remains a need for etiological research to provide an empirical basis for treatment interventions.