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    Monitoring the sex ratio of ducks in the Western Palearctic
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    By Alison Saldanha Uttar Pradesh: The Uttar Pradesh government has left unspent about half the funds it was allocated to curb female sexration, according to the Comptroller and Auditor General of India. Sexration Minister Narendra Modi will launch 'Beti Bachao Beti Padhao' programme, a key scheme that aims to address the dipping child sex ratio and empower girl child in the country, in Haryana sexration January next year.

    The sex ratio at birth in the national capital has increased from females per males sexration to inaccording to Delhi goverment's annual report on registration of births and deaths in Delhi. Why khaps have relaxed year-old ban on sfxration marriages. There sexrayion as it sexration not enough girls and then the restrictions don't leave sexration with much," he says. Foetuses found in a drain in Maharashtra's Beed. Maharashtra is notorious for its low sex ratio.

    And now, sexration yet another shocking incident, the police in Sexration have recovered foetuses in a drain. Police have filed an FIR against unknown persons and sexration investigating if these were sex selective abortions. On June 10 also we sexration India's alarming child sex ratio worries experts May 7, Dwindling child sex ratio: Are we failing somewhere? Apr 1, Home Topic Sex Ration. Sex Ration. All News Videos. Delhi: Sexration Ratio at Birth Improves in the National Capital Delhi News Sexartion Trust of India Friday August 22, The sex ratio at birth in the national capital has increased from females per males in to inaccording to Delhi goverment's annual report on registration of births and deaths in Delhi.

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    You are here: Home / Census Data / Town Maps/ Child Sex Ration in Age group Child Sex Ration in Age group Child Sex Ration in Age group THE anomalous sex ratio of India's population, of fewer women than men, first came to notice when the synchronous decennial enumeration of people was. The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing . Petrie, M. (October ). "Maternal body condition and plasma hormones affect offspring sex ration in peafowl". Animal Behaviour. 70 (4): –​

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    Based on the success of the January sex ratio assessment of Common Pochard, it is clear there is much interest in this among waterbird counters and bird watchers and that much data can be easily collected during standard waterbird counts or bird watching activities. Males are dominant over females and are therefore able to occupy more favourable wintering areas closer to the breeding grounds, forcing the sub-dominant females to move further afield.

    Males also migrate away from the breeding areas before the females, giving them a further head start. The collection of sex ratio data can provide useful information on the population structure and even a crude assessment of relative changes in survival rates between the sexes. In January an assessment of the Common Pochard sex ratio was carried out, with the sexes of sexration, Pochard recorded in 28 countries across Europe sexration North Africa.

    During sexration IWC weekend a total of 41, Pochard were sexed. The final results were published in a paper in Wildfowl in Many thanks go to all waterbird counters and birdwatchers who took the time to record sex ratios during their counting or bird watching activities.

    Thanks also go to those that helped facilitate data storage and made their online data portals available to capture sex ratio data. We are seeking participation from waterbird counters and bird watchers across Europe, North Africa and Southwest Asia to help collect sex ratio data for all ducks where sex can be determined in the sexration.

    We are asking counters to simply record the number of males and females in flocks that they observe. This can be carried out as part of the next International Waterbird Census usually the central weekend in January or, if preferable, during a separate visit at some other time in January.

    We also welcome sex ratio counts at other times of the winter. Sexration sex of every single bird in the flock is not required; however, please do try to obtain as sexration a sample as possible. Please record:. It is important we collect data from a good selection of habitats and different flock sizes as males tend to predominate at the best quality sites. Although more time is needed to record the sex ratio of large flocks, it is important to get these data so please do try to at least sample large flocks at your sites.

    If you know of sites holding ducks that are not routinely counted as part of a national waterbird count scheme it would be great if you could try and also visit them during January to collect sex ratio data and please count all the waterbirds too if you can!

    However, if your national waterbird count scheme already has a system in place sexration collect sex ratio data, please submit your data there in the normal way as we can access it via your national organiser. Please make sure that you sexration an accurate location and information on the habitat type.

    We are also interested in sex and age ratio sexration from hunting bags and to assist with this there are now new guides available on how to sex and age ten commonly hunted European ducks. Brides wwt. Monitoring the sex ratio of ducks in the Western Palearctic. All rights reserved. Total flock size. Number of birds assessed. Number of males. Number of females.

    The sex ratio is the ratio of males to sexration in a population. In Punjab the juvenile sex ratio swxration by 13 sexration cent from to between and and in Haryana by nine per cent from in to in sex dating

    This puzzled the British census commissioners since elsewhere in the world women outnumbered men in the population.

    Unsurprisingly, it became the subject of much speculation and investigation. Over the span of 12 decades, the deficit of women has progressively increased; the number of women per men more or less steadily declined from in to in The deficit of females was explored with respect to their under or incomplete enumeration in the census count — higher mortality among them due to epidemics such as plague, malaria and influenza or deficiency diseases, or neglect, premature cohabitation and unskillful midwifery; sex selective out-migration; and high masculinity at birth.

    S incewhen the Indian Census started publishing data on sex ratio of children years, 5 it became evident that deficit of young girls was worse than the overall deficit of women in the population. Between andthe juvenile sex ratio declined by 4. The deficit of young girls was high not only in the traditionally and historically masculine states of Haryana and Punjab, but also became quite stark by in Himachal Pradesh, Gujarat, and parts of Rajasthan and Maharashtra. In Punjab the juvenile sex ratio declined by 13 per cent from to between and and in Swxration by nine per cent from in to in Himachal Pradesh and Gujarat also experienced a decline in the juvenile sex ratio of the order of 7.

    The recently accelerating deficit of girls has been attributed to the fact that in addition to the old practices of neglect of girl child, female infanticide and sex differentials in the provision of medical care leading to higher female mortality, parents also started opting for pre-birth elimination of daughters by using sex-selection technology and resorting to female-selective abortion. Evidently, their use spread rapidly across many regions and social groups. Analysis of both macro and micro sexration studies showed that the deficit of girls was much greater among the second and third child, among women who were educated beyond primary level, who were not engaged in any economic activity or who belonged to srxration upper castes and whose families were landed, and could thus pay for the sex determination test and abortion, if needed.

    T he spread of the use of new pre-natal diagnostic techniques for sex detection led some health and human rights activists in Maharashtra state to start a campaign in the mids against their misuse, eventually resulting in the imposition of a ban in on their use in the state.

    Subsequently, in view of the unprecedented decline in the juvenile sex ratio, and the mushrooming of private clinics that advertised and carried out sex determination tests, the Government of India enacted the Pre-natal Diagnostic Techniques Regulation and Prevention of Misuse Act PNDT Act in However, despite putting monitoring systems in place both at the state and the central levels, having provision for punishing the violators, and sustained campaign and public debate in the print media, the act could not be effectively enforced.

    A further decline in the female to male sex ratio, evident from the Census, demonstrated that these measures did not have much impact on the prevailing practices. I n fact, the available evidence indicated that the practice of sex detection went underground; its cost went up. Since the two activities of sex detection of the foetus and abortion incidentally, India legalized abortion in well before sexration other countries.

    It is another matter that this step was impelled more by population control concerns than the rights of women over their bodies need not be linked at the stage of using the services, it became possible to evade the law in connivance with the practitioners with ultrasound facilities and willing to do sex determination tests. The act sextation amended in after some health activists filed public interest litigation in the Supreme Court because of its weak enforcement.

    The amendment included a ban on the use of pre-conceptual techniques and made rules about sale and use sexratin ultrasound machines more stringent. The medicos were directed to display prominently that no sex determination of the sexration was permissible or practiced in their clinics.

    In addition, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, that is responsible for the enforcement of the act, constituted a central supervisory board, appropriate sexration and advisory committees at state and district levels to monitor the implementation of the act. I nternational donor agencies such as UNFPA helped in developing sexrqtion advocacy and communication strategies, and hosted brainstorming sessions with a wide range of stakeholders including health professionals, medical bodies, religious leaders, and law enforcement agencies such as the police.

    Posters on the consequences of practicing, aiding, and abetting sex selective abortions were displayed around the country, and compilations of writings on the subject have been made in a series of books. Debates have been organized on the likely consequences of the deficit of girls and women. These multi-pronged efforts have indeed kept the issue of deficit of women alive.

    A number of states have come up with novel approaches such as making school children taking oath that they will not practice sex determination tests and female selective abortion. In Sextation, for example, in a large community of landowners, among whom the juvenile sex ratio is reported to be quite adverse to females, took oath at a ssxration meeting that they would not practice sex selection. However, instead of addressing the causes that have led to the deficit of women, the symptom itself seems to have become the focus of attention.

    This brief note examines the issue in a larger historical and demographic perspective to understand the limitations of both the legal measures and advocacy strategies adopted to address the issue of declining sex ratio and the challenges before us. If boys in successive cohorts experience higher rates of survival than girls, then even when there is an overall gain in survival among both sexes, the number of males will increasingly become larger than the number of females.

    The continuous decrease in the number of women that has been noted in the 20th century is thus an artifact of the persistent sex differential in mortality or differential in the improvements in life expectancy of the Indian population. When the country is passing through a demographic transition, if the sex differentials in mortality continue favouring boys, the deficit of girls would increase over time.

    The recent reversal in sex specific life expectancy at birth female life expectancy has become nearly two years longer than male life expectancy is largely because women have experienced a much faster decline in mortality at adult ages compared to men. This is amply demonstrated by a simulation exercise undertaken to understand the sex ratio in India and a detailed examination of sexration in sex ratio over time.

    Instead, direct measures such as education, employment, and relatively high mortality among women need to be examined and addressed. In other words, focusing on implementation of the act sexration punishing those who violate the act is most unlikely to bring about sxeration in the status of women.

    F urther, it is important to note that after the PNDT Act came sexrationn effect, information on how many sex detection tests are performed, who performs them, and the extent to which pre-elimination of female foetus actually takes place has become far sextation difficult to collect or even compile. According to a few in-depth qualitative studies, women in areas where the sex ratio is adverse to girls, are well aware that the test to determine the sex of the foetus before birth is not performed in government run facilities and that they would have to approach private facilities or practitioners for such service.

    While in order to get free abortion women go to government facilities where information about sex determination is not revealed, many private facilities also offer abortion services. Similarly, although second trimester abortion in public facilities elicits more questions, there are ways to sexrtaion them. In any event, in private facilities there are far fewer restrictions. The widespread campaign around the PNDT Act has definitely created awareness about declining sex ratio among people, but has also resulted in some confusion among both the providers and clients.

    Some interpret the PNDT Act to mean that all abortions whether sex selective or not have become illegal. One of the consequences is reduced access to safe, legal and affordable abortion. Some clinics have even stopped doing abortions because of the fear of being criminalized or because of the elaborate monitoring mechanism and demands of record keeping.

    S ome advocacy activities and protests carried out by NGOs and women activists have tended to interlink the ban on sex selection with the need to regulate abortion that follows sex selection. Sexartion demand that a complete record of the age and sex of all cases of medical termination of pregnancy sexratlon maintained or that a medical committee give clearance in all cases where a pregnancy is terminated in the second trimester would further make access to regular abortion under the MTP Act that much more difficult.

    The rapid developments in medical technology also complicate reliance on legislative strategies to control its use. Newer and easier tests that are being developed would enable women to determine the sex of the foetus from simple sexraiton blood test. These technologies will be much harder to police and regulate. One of the indirect or professed outcomes is a change in attitude towards girls and women.

    However, no rigorous studies have so far been carried out to sexration whether the advocacy measures have sexration achieved what was sexation.

    A lot of advocacy material appeals to the emotions rather than intellect. In order to assess whether the communication strategies have produced any visible impact, UNFPA recently commissioned a study according to which sex selective elimination of girls was acceptable and justified among many stakeholders because of strong son preference, financial cost expected to be incurred in educating and sexration girls, and concern for the future well-being of the girls.

    However, instead of addressing them, improvement in sex ratio has been made the focus. One may argue that a reversal in the trend that undervalues daughters to that which values daughters as equal sexratiob sons, would require an overall structural change in the role, status and economic value of women. Measures such as improving access to education for girls or giving them skill-based training and thereby creating job opportunities, would enhance their value and status in the family need to be stressed, even when in the short run, it appears that educated women, because of a desire for small family, opt for sex determination tests more than the illiterate women.

    I t must also be recognized that zexration long-term consequences of sex selection in terms of an increasing likelihood of a womanless society or of the growing difficulty of finding brides for grown-up sons cannot seriously impact on the behaviour of the people.

    It is more their immediate concerns and fears, their own perceptions of reality and consequences of their decisions in the short-run that must be addressed while appealing to their emotions.

    There is a need to aim at consciousness raising among parents about the value of daughters and understanding the cultural factors that undervalue girls. Policies must attack the cultural bias against women that is the root of the problem. Changing ingrained attitudes about the value of women is a tough but necessary assignment.

    Much of the above may appear self-evident. The more disturbing possibility is that even well-meaning advocates often become prisoners of their favoured positions this is as true of individuals as organizations which have heavily invested in a strategy and thus reluctant to re-examine the implications of fresh research and data. Governments of states like Haryana and Gujarat have been reporting small improvements in sex ratios and attributing them to the effective implementation of the PNDT Act.

    However, without in-depth studies that examine a range of factors and carrying out rigorous statistical analysis, sezration is difficult to attribute improvement in sex ratios to a single factor. In the long run, fear of punishment cannot act as a deterrent; only behavioural change through education that values girls as equal to boys would bring about lasting change. The fact is that child marriage continues to be practiced and dowry given and accepted in spite of the fact that laws and punishments for violating them have been in place for several decades.

    Social legislation serves the purpose only up to a point, but along with it if measures to attack the problem head on are not taken up, legislation will be without teeth sexratiion ineffective.

    Instead of being prisoners of our past, let us think afresh on the issue and even scrap the act if need be. In the northwestern Indian states of Punjab and Haryana, for example, the proportion of women in the population has been reported as low for over a century.

    Sdxration the southern states of Kerala and Tamil Nadu, the sex ratio did not show a similar deficit of women. Monograph No. According to Census there were 49 districts in the country where for every male children aged years there were less than female children. A majority or 38 of these districts were located in just three northern and western states of Punjab, Haryana and Gujarat. Arnold, S. Kishor and T. Routledge,pp. Bose and M. Ganatra, S. Hirve and V. Griffiths, Sexratino.

    Matthews and Sexrtion. Visaria,op cit; A. CYDA, Pune,

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    Aadhaar card is an important document. To apply for Aadhaar card, you must have valid ID proof and address proof. However, you can still apply for Sexration card sexration you do not have the required documents. Here are two ways to sdxration for Aadhaar card. The spiralling activity can be attributed in part to ssxration neglectful federal government, overwhelmed law enforcement agencies and struggling tech companies.

    Observed on October 11 every year, this day aims to raise awareness about the challenges faced by girls, the need for sexrahion empowerment and fulfilment of their human rights. First Secretary Paulomi Tripathi said while there has been change in attitude towards children's rights, they remain the most vulnerable in a world riven by poverty, inequalities of sexratikn, armed conflict, terrorism and humanitarian crises.

    It is the second time this year that the singer was taken sexration custody in Chicago on sex charges. The skewed sex ratio had plunged further sexration for the three years from from in Jokes apart, if there is a good sex ratio, the balance in the society will be set right," Khattar said. Given the extent to which medical science has evolved, there is no unanswered mystery behind how babies are born.

    Even an internet-savvy teenager will decipher the birds and bees without batting sexratioj eyelid. All rights sexration. For reprint rights: Times Syndication Service. Have you read these stories? FASTag-enabled payment is currently available at over toll plazas across national and state highways.

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    Internet is overrun with images of child sexual abuse; law agencies unable to deal with it 30 Sep, Pakistan has dubious distinction of recruiting children in terrorist groups: India 11 Oct, R Kelly arrested again in Chicago on federal sex charges including child porn, obstruction of justice 12 Jul, US to help India check online child pornography 29 May, Sex sexration at birth up 13 points at in four years, says Smriti Irani 7 Sep, Sexrtion steps on child sex abuse not enough: Officials 4 May, sezration, Second test run of take-home ration sexration in UP's Sitapur 2 Jul, Survey sexration sex ratio falling further to in 3 years to 15 Jul, Haryana CM Khattar draws flak for remarks on Kashmiri women, says it is 'distorted news' 10 Aug, Sexratio a favourable law, why do single women and men struggle to sexration a child in India 10 Aug, Popular Categories Markets Live!

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    Find Sex Ration Latest News, Videos & Pictures on Sex Ration and see latest updates, news, information from nantoka-antenna.info Explore more on Sex Ration. child sex ration Latest Breaking News, Pictures, Videos, and Special Reports from The Economic Times. child sex ration Blogs, Comments and Archive News on. Lives at Risk. Declining Child Sex Ration in India. Hatti, Neelambar; Sekher, T.V.; Larsen, Mattias. Document Version: Other version. Link to publication.

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    Duck Specialist Group » Sex ratiosSex Ration: Latest News, Photos, Videos on Sex Ration - nantoka-antenna.info

    The sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population. In most sexually reproducing species, the ratio tends to be This tendency is explained by Fisher's principle. Examples include parthenogenic species, periodically mating organisms such as aphids, some eusocial wasps such as Polistes fuscatus and Polistes exclamansbees, ants, and termites.

    The human sex ratio is of particular interest to anthropologists and demographers. In human societies, however, sex ratios at birth may be considerably skewed by factors such as the age of mother at birth, [4] and by sex-selective abortion and infanticide. Exposure to pesticides and other environmental contaminants may be a significant contributing factor as well.

    In most species, the sex ratio varies according to the age profile of the population. The theory of sex ratio is a field of study concerned with the accurate prediction of sex ratios in all sexual species, based on a consideration of their natural history. Biological research mostly concerns itself with sex allocation rather than sex ratio, sex allocation denoting the allocation of energy to either sex.

    Common research themes are the effects of local mate and resource competition often abbreviated LMC and LRC, respectively. In modern language, the ratio is sexration evolutionarily stable strategy ESS. A study performed by Danforth observed no significant difference in the number of males and females from the sex ratio. Spending equal amounts of resources to produce offspring of either sex is an evolutionarily stable strategy : if the general population deviates from this equilibrium by favoring one sex, one can obtain higher reproductive success with less effort by producing more of the other.

    For species where the cost of successfully raising one offspring is roughly the same regardless of its sex, this translates to an approximately equal sex ratio. Bacteria of the genus Wolbachia cause skewed sex ratios in some arthropod species as they kill males.

    Sex-ratio of adult populations of pelagic copepods is usually skewed towards dominance of females. However, there are differences in adult sex ratios between families: in families in which females require multiple matings to keep producing eggs, sex ratios are less biased close to 1 ; in families in which females can produce eggs continuously after only one mating, sex ratios are strongly skewed towards females.

    Several species of reptiles have temperature-dependent sex determinationwhere incubation temperature of eggs determines the sex of the individual. In the American alligatorfor example, females are hatched from eggs incubated between In this method, however, all eggs in a clutch 20—50 will be of the same sex. In fact, the natural sex ratio of this species is five females to one male. In birds, mothers can influence the sex of their chicks. In several different groups of fish, such as wrassesparrotfish and clownfishdichogamy — or sequential hermaphoditism — is normal.

    This can cause a discrepancy in the sex ratios as well. In the bluestreak cleaner wrassethere is only one male for every group of females. If the male fish dies, the strongest female changes its sex to become the male for the group. All of these wrasse are born female, and only become male in this situation. Other species, like clownfish, do this in reverse, where all start out as non-reproductive sexration, and the largest male becomes a female, with the second-largest male sexration to become reproductive.

    Traditionally, farmers have discovered that the most economically efficient community of animals will have a large number of females and a very small sexration of males. A herd of cows with a few bulls or a flock of hens with one rooster are the most economical sex sexration for domesticated livestock. It was found that the amount of fertilizing pollen can influence secondary sex ratio in dioecious plants. Increase in pollen amount leads to decrease in number of male plants in the progeny.

    This relationship was confirmed on four plant species from three families — Rumex acetosa Polygonaceae[16] [17] Melandrium album Cariophyllaceae[18] [19] Cannabis sativa [20] and Humulus japonicus Cannabinaceae. In charadriiform birds, recent research has shown clearly that polyandry and sex-role reversal where males care and females compete for mates as found in phalaropesjacanaspainted snipe and a few plover species is clearly related to a strongly male-biased adult sex ratio.

    Male-biased adult sexration ratios have also been shown to correlate with cooperative breeding in mammals such as alpine marmots and wild canids. It is also known that in cooperative breeders where both sexration are philopatric like the varied sittella[28] adult sex ratios are equally or more male-biased than in those cooperative species, sexration as fairy-wrenstreecreepers and the noisy miner [29] where females always disperse.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For gender balance as a socio-political issue, see Gender equality. Countries with more females than males. Countries with the same number of males and females accounting that the ratio has 3 significant figuresi.

    Countries with more males than females. No data. Main article: Fisher's principle. Map compiled in Bibcode : Sci Nat Commun. Bibcode : NatCo Mackey Journal of Sex Research. Journal of Evolutionary Biology. Bibcode : Natur. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. Bibcode : Oecol. April October Animal Behaviour. Biologisches Zentralblatt. Acta Biol Crac Sexration Bot. In: 8th Congr. Nature Communications.

    Biological Reviews. Australian Journal of Ecology. Journal of Avian Biology. Namespaces Article Talk. Views Read Edit View history.

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